Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006

Molecular Analysis of Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A Isolate, India

Satheesh Nair*, Madhulika Unnikrishnan†, Keith Turner*, Subash Chandra Parija†, Carol Churcher*, John Wain*, and Belgode Narasimha Harish†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom; †Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India

Main Article

Table 2

Presence of qnr and mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A strains associated with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin*

Country Year MIC (μg/mL)
Cp Nal qnr gyrA parC Reference
India 1999 0.38 >256 ND Ser83→Phe ND (8)
Bangladesh 1999 0.5 >256 ND Asp87→Gly ND (8)
India 1999 0.5 >256 ND Ser83→Phe ND (8)
Hong Kong 2000 0.5 >256 ND Ser83→Tyr NM (9)
Japan 2002 >128 >256 ND Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn Glu84→Lys (7)
India 2002 8 >256 NP Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Gly Ser80→Arg† This study

*No mutations were detected in gyrB and parE. Cp, ciprofloxacin; Nal, nalidixic acid; ND, not determined; NP, not present; NM, no mutation within the quinolone resistance–determining region.
†European Molecular Biology Laboratory accession no. AM050347.

Main Article

  1. Crump  JA, Luby  SP, Mintz  ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:34653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Sood  S, Kapil  A, Dash  N, Das  BK, Goel  V, Seth  P. Paratyphoid fever in India: an emerging problem. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:4834. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Yang  J, Dong  B, Wang  M, Tang  Z, Gong  J, Li  C, An analysis of S. Paratyphi A and S. Typhi prevalence in Guangxi autonomous region between 1994–2002 [article in Chinese]. China Trop Med. 2004;a:177–18.
  4. Chandel  DS, Chaudhry  R, Dhawan  B, Pandey  A, Dey  AB. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:4201. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Wain  J, Hoa  NT, Chinh  NT, Vinh  H, Everett  MJ, Diep  TS, Quinolone-resistant Salmonella typhi in Viet Nam: molecular basis of resistance and clinical response to treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:140410. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Harish  BN, Madhulika  U, Parija  SC. Isolated high-level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Paratyphi A. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:819. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Adachi  T, Sagara  H, Hirose  K, Watanabe  H. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Walker  RA, Skinner  JA, Ward  LR, Threlfall  EJ. LightCycler gyrA mutation assay (GAMA) identifies heterogeneity in gyrA in Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:6225. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ling  JM, Chan  EW, Lam  AW, Cheng  AF. Mutations in topoisomerase genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant salmonellae in Hong Kong. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:356773. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Piddock  LJ. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella serovars isolated from humans and food animals. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002;26:316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eaves  DJ, Randall  L, Gray  DT, Buckley  A, Woodward  MJ, White  AP, Prevalence of mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and association with antibiotic resistance in quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:40125. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Piddock  LJ, Ricci  V, McLaren  I, Griggs  DJ. Role of mutation in the gyrA and parC genes of nalidixic-acid-resistant salmonella serotypes isolated from animals in the United Kingdom. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998;41:63541. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang  M, Sahm  DF, Jacoby  GA, Hooper  DC. Emerging plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance associated with the qnr gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:12959. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Selander  RK, Beltran  P, Smith  NH, Helmuth  R, Rubin  FA, Kopecko  DJ, Evolutionary genetic relationships of clones of Salmonella serovars that cause human typhoid and other enteric fevers. Infect Immun. 1990;58:226275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandel  DS, Nisar  N, Thong  KL, Pang  T, Chaudhry  R. Role of molecular typing in an outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi A. Trop Gastroenterol. 2000;21:1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: January 27, 2012
Page updated: January 27, 2012
Page reviewed: January 27, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.