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Early Release

Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Volume 28, Number 8—August 2022

Synopses
  • Investigation of COVID-19 Outbreak among Wildland Firefighters during Wildfire Response, Colorado, USA, 2020
    A. Metz et al.

    A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among Cameron Peak Fire responders in Colorado, USA, during August 2020–January 2021. The Cameron Peak Fire was the largest recorded wildfire in Colorado history, lasting August–December 2020. At least 6,123 responders were involved, including 1,260 firefighters in 63 crews who mobilized to the fire camps. A total of 79 COVID-19 cases were identified among responders, and 273 close contacts were quarantined. State and local public health investigated the outbreak and coordinated with wildfire management teams to prevent disease spread. We performed whole-genome sequencing and applied social network analysis to visualize clusters and transmission dynamics. Phylogenetic analysis identified 8 lineages among sequenced specimens, implying multiple introductions. Social network analysis identified spread between and within crews. Strategies such as implementing symptom screening and testing of arriving responders, educating responders about overlapping symptoms of smoke inhalation and COVID-19, improving physical distancing of crews, and encouraging vaccinations are recommended.

  • Ethnic Group Differences in Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection, Hawaii, USA 2005–2019
    R. A. Blakney et al.
  • Evidence for Ribavirin Treatment of Lassa Fever in Systematic Review of Published and Unpublished Studies
    H. Cheng et al.
Research
  • Characterization of Emerging Serotype 19A Pneumococcal Strains in Invasive Disease and Carriage, Belgium
    S. Desmet et al.
  • Association of Environmental Factors with Intensity of Seasonal Seropositivity of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in Arctic Caribou
    O. Aleuy et al.
  • Dog Ownership and Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany
    J. Schmidberger et al.
  • Transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.214 and Alpha Variants during 4 COVID-19 Waves, Kyoto, Japan, January 2020–June 2021
    Y. Matsumura et al.

    Household transmission is a primary source of SARS-CoV-2 spread. We used COVID-19 epidemiologic investigation data and viral genome analysis data collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan, during January 2020–June 2021 to evaluate the effects of different settings and viral strains on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Epidemiologic investigations of 5,061 COVID-19 cases found that the most common category for close contact was within households (35.3%); this category also had the highest reverse transcription PCR positivity. The prevalent viral lineage shifted from B.1.1.214 in the third wave to the Alpha variant in the fourth wave. The proportion of secondary cases associated with households also increased from the third to fourth waves (27% vs. 29%). Among 564 contacts from 206 households, Alpha variant was significantly associated with household transmission (odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.06–2.18) compared with B.1.1.214. Public health interventions targeting household contacts and specific variants could help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

  • Increasing and More Commonly Refractory Mycobacterium avium Pulmonary Disease, Toronto, Canada
    D. Raats et al.
  • Major Role for the Belief that COVID-19 Vaccination Will End the Pandemic
    M. de Vries et al.
  • Dominant Carbapenemase-Encoding Plasmids in Clinical Enterobacterales Isolates and Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore
    M. Yong et al.
  • Factors Associated with Delayed or Missed Second-Dose mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination among Persons 12 Years of Age and Older, United States
    L. Meng et al.
  • COVID-19 Symptoms and Deaths among Healthcare Workers, United States
    S. Lin et al.
Dispatches
  • Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China, 2021
    J. Chen et al.
  • Spiroplasma ixodetis Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Patients after Tick Exposure, Sweden
    J. Eimer et al.
  • Robustness of SARS-CoV-2 Mu Variant against Naturally Acquired and Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses
    E. F. de Oliveira-Filho et al.
  • Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infection in a Cat in Texas
    R. Tyler et al.
  • Serial Intervals for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta Variants, Belgium, November 19–December 31, 2021
    C. Kremer et al.

    We investigated the serial interval for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and Delta variants and observed a shorter serial interval for Omicron, suggesting faster transmission. Results indicate a relationship between empirical serial interval and vaccination status for both variants. Further assessment of the causes and extent of Omicron dominance over Delta is warranted.

  • Novel Chronic Anaplasmosis in Splenectomized Patient, Amazon Rainforest
    O. Duron et al.
  • Child Melioidosis Deaths Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei–Contaminated Borehole Water, Vietnam, 2019
    Q. Tran et al.

    Within 8 months, 3 children from 1 family in northern Vietnam died from melioidosis. Burkholderia pseudomallei of the same sequence type, 541, was isolated from clinical samples, borehole water, and garden and rice field soil. Boreholes should be properly constructed and maintained to avoid B. pseudomallei contamination.

  • Culling of Urban Norway Rats and Carriage of Bartonella spp. Bacteria
    K. A. Byers et al.
  • Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Echinococcus multilocularis in a Small Public Area
    K. Uraguchi et al.
  • Zoonotic Threat of G4 Genotype Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses, China, 2020
    M. Gu et al.
  • Association of Phylogenomic Relatedness between Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains with Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns, Austria, 2016–2020
    J. Schaeffer et al.
Research Letters
  • Estimating COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness for Skilled Nursing Facility Healthcare Personnel, California, USA
    M. Magro et al.

    We estimated real-world vaccine effectiveness among skilled nursing facility healthcare personnel who were regularly tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in California, USA, during January‒March 2021. Vaccine effectiveness for fully vaccinated healthcare personnel was 73.3% (95% CI 57.5%–83.3%). We observed high real-world vaccine effectiveness in this population.

  • Bacillus subtilis var. natto Bacteremia of Gastrointestinal Origin
    I. Tanaka et al.
  • Invasive Streptococcus oralis Expressing Serotype 3 Pneumococcal Capsule, Japan
    B. Chang et al.
  • Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
    L. Nevejan et al.

    Illustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.

  • Emergence of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Cosmopolitan Genotype, Brazil
    M. Giovanetti et al.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak among Tigray War Refugees from Ethiopia, Sudan
    A. Ahmed et al.
  • Public Health Risk of Foodborne Pathogens in Edible African Land Snails, Cameroon
    M. Tanyitiku et al.
Letters
  • Imported Monkeypox from International Traveler, Maryland, USA, 2021
    F. S. Minhaj et al.
  • Imported Monkeypox from International Traveler, Maryland, USA, 2021
    V. Costello et al.
  • The Complexity of Chikungunya and Importance of New Tools for Epidemiologic Surveillance
    A. R. Freitas et al.
In Memoriam
  • In Memoriam: Karen Foster (1955–2022)
    B. Breedlove
Online Report
  • Weighing Potential Benefits and Harms of Mycoplasma genitalium Testing and Treatment Approaches
    L. E. Manhart et al.

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Volume 28, Number 9—September 2022

Synopsis
  • Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection
    T. Hills et al.
Dispatches
  • Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies
    M. Loesche et al.
  • Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022
    Y. M. Mefsin et al.

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Volume 28, Supplement—October 2022

Perspective
  • Clinical and Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Agricultural Workers, Guatemala
    D. Olson et al.
Synopses
  • Enhancing Respiratory Disease Surveillance to Detect COVID-19 in Shelters for Displaced Persons, Thai-Myanmar Border, 2020–2021
    B. Knust et al.
  • CDC’s International COVID-19 Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation Program and Lessons from Previous Vaccine Introductions
    H. M. Soeters et al.
  • Leveraging International Influenza Surveillance Systems and Programs during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    P. Marcenac et al.
  • Lessons Learned from CDC’s Global COVID-19 Early Warning and Response Surveillance System
    P. M. Ricks et al.
  • Faith Community Engagement to Mitigate COVID-19 Transmission Associated with Mass Gathering, Uman, Ukraine, September 2021
    L. Erickson-Mamane et al.
  • Adoption of World Health Organization Multimodal Infection Prevention and Control Strategies to Respond to COVID-19, Kenya
    D. Kimani et al.
Other
  • Outcomes after Acute Malnutrition Program Adaptations to COVID-19, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia
    T. Shragai et al.

    At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, protocols for community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) were implemented to support continuity of essential feeding services while mitigating COVID-19 transmission. To assess correlations between adaptation timing and CMAM program indicators, we evaluated routine program data in Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia for children 6–59 months of age. We specifically analyzed facility-level changes in total admissions, average length of stay (ALOS), total children screened for admission, and recovery rates before and after adaptations. We found no statistically significant changes in program indicators after adaptations. For Somalia, we also analyzed child-level changes in ALOS and in weight and mid–upper arm circumference at admission and discharge. ALOS significantly increased immediately after adaptations and then decreased to preadaptation levels. We found no meaningful changes in either weight or mid–upper arm circumference at admission or discharge. These findings indicate that adapted CMAM programs can remain effective.

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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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