Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.
Volume 28, Number 8—August 2022
Investigation of COVID-19 Outbreak among Wildland Firefighters during Wildfire Response, Colorado, USA, 2020
A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among Cameron Peak Fire responders in Colorado, USA, during August 2020–January 2021. The Cameron Peak Fire was the largest recorded wildfire in Colorado history, lasting August–December 2020. At least 6,123 responders were involved, including 1,260 firefighters in 63 crews who mobilized to the fire camps. A total of 79 COVID-19 cases were identified among responders, and 273 close contacts were quarantined. State and local public health investigated the outbreak and coordinated with wildfire management teams to prevent disease spread. We performed whole-genome sequencing and applied social network analysis to visualize clusters and transmission dynamics. Phylogenetic analysis identified 8 lineages among sequenced specimens, implying multiple introductions. Social network analysis identified spread between and within crews. Strategies such as implementing symptom screening and testing of arriving responders, educating responders about overlapping symptoms of smoke inhalation and COVID-19, improving physical distancing of crews, and encouraging vaccinations are recommended.
- Ethnic Group Differences in Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection, Hawaii, USA 2005–2019
- Evidence for Ribavirin Treatment of Lassa Fever in Systematic Review of Published and Unpublished Studies
- Characterization of Emerging Serotype 19A Pneumococcal Strains in Invasive Disease and Carriage, Belgium
- Association of Environmental Factors with Intensity of Seasonal Seropositivity of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in Arctic Caribou
- Dog Ownership and Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany
Transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.214 and Alpha Variants during 4 COVID-19 Waves, Kyoto, Japan, January 2020–June 2021
Household transmission is a primary source of SARS-CoV-2 spread. We used COVID-19 epidemiologic investigation data and viral genome analysis data collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan, during January 2020–June 2021 to evaluate the effects of different settings and viral strains on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Epidemiologic investigations of 5,061 COVID-19 cases found that the most common category for close contact was within households (35.3%); this category also had the highest reverse transcription PCR positivity. The prevalent viral lineage shifted from B.1.1.214 in the third wave to the Alpha variant in the fourth wave. The proportion of secondary cases associated with households also increased from the third to fourth waves (27% vs. 29%). Among 564 contacts from 206 households, Alpha variant was significantly associated with household transmission (odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.06–2.18) compared with B.1.1.214. Public health interventions targeting household contacts and specific variants could help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
- Increasing and More Commonly Refractory Mycobacterium avium Pulmonary Disease, Toronto, Canada
- Major Role for the Belief that COVID-19 Vaccination Will End the Pandemic
- Dominant Carbapenemase-Encoding Plasmids in Clinical Enterobacterales Isolates and Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore
- Factors Associated with Delayed or Missed Second-Dose mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination among Persons 12 Years of Age and Older, United States
- COVID-19 Symptoms and Deaths among Healthcare Workers, United States
- Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China, 2021
- Spiroplasma ixodetis Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Patients after Tick Exposure, Sweden
- Robustness of SARS-CoV-2 Mu Variant against Naturally Acquired and Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses
- Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infection in a Cat in Texas
Serial Intervals for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta Variants, Belgium, November 19–December 31, 2021
We investigated the serial interval for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and Delta variants and observed a shorter serial interval for Omicron, suggesting faster transmission. Results indicate a relationship between empirical serial interval and vaccination status for both variants. Further assessment of the causes and extent of Omicron dominance over Delta is warranted.
- Novel Chronic Anaplasmosis in Splenectomized Patient, Amazon Rainforest
Child Melioidosis Deaths Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei–Contaminated Borehole Water, Vietnam, 2019
Within 8 months, 3 children from 1 family in northern Vietnam died from melioidosis. Burkholderia pseudomallei of the same sequence type, 541, was isolated from clinical samples, borehole water, and garden and rice field soil. Boreholes should be properly constructed and maintained to avoid B. pseudomallei contamination.
- Culling of Urban Norway Rats and Carriage of Bartonella spp. Bacteria
- Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Echinococcus multilocularis in a Small Public Area
- Zoonotic Threat of G4 Genotype Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses, China, 2020
- Association of Phylogenomic Relatedness between Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains with Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns, Austria, 2016–2020
Estimating COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness for Skilled Nursing Facility Healthcare Personnel, California, USA
We estimated real-world vaccine effectiveness among skilled nursing facility healthcare personnel who were regularly tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in California, USA, during January‒March 2021. Vaccine effectiveness for fully vaccinated healthcare personnel was 73.3% (95% CI 57.5%–83.3%). We observed high real-world vaccine effectiveness in this population.
- Bacillus subtilis var. natto Bacteremia of Gastrointestinal Origin
- Invasive Streptococcus oralis Expressing Serotype 3 Pneumococcal Capsule, Japan
Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Illustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.
- Emergence of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Cosmopolitan Genotype, Brazil
- Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak among Tigray War Refugees from Ethiopia, Sudan
- Public Health Risk of Foodborne Pathogens in Edible African Land Snails, Cameroon
- Imported Monkeypox from International Traveler, Maryland, USA, 2021
- Imported Monkeypox from International Traveler, Maryland, USA, 2021
- The Complexity of Chikungunya and Importance of New Tools for Epidemiologic Surveillance
- In Memoriam: Karen Foster (1955–2022)
- Weighing Potential Benefits and Harms of Mycoplasma genitalium Testing and Treatment Approaches
Volume 28, Number 9—September 2022
- Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection
- Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies
- Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022
Volume 28, Supplement—October 2022
- Clinical and Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Agricultural Workers, Guatemala
- Enhancing Respiratory Disease Surveillance to Detect COVID-19 in Shelters for Displaced Persons, Thai-Myanmar Border, 2020–2021
- CDC’s International COVID-19 Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation Program and Lessons from Previous Vaccine Introductions
- Leveraging International Influenza Surveillance Systems and Programs during the COVID-19 Pandemic
- Lessons Learned from CDC’s Global COVID-19 Early Warning and Response Surveillance System
- Faith Community Engagement to Mitigate COVID-19 Transmission Associated with Mass Gathering, Uman, Ukraine, September 2021
- Adoption of World Health Organization Multimodal Infection Prevention and Control Strategies to Respond to COVID-19, Kenya
Outcomes after Acute Malnutrition Program Adaptations to COVID-19, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia
At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, protocols for community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) were implemented to support continuity of essential feeding services while mitigating COVID-19 transmission. To assess correlations between adaptation timing and CMAM program indicators, we evaluated routine program data in Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia for children 6–59 months of age. We specifically analyzed facility-level changes in total admissions, average length of stay (ALOS), total children screened for admission, and recovery rates before and after adaptations. We found no statistically significant changes in program indicators after adaptations. For Somalia, we also analyzed child-level changes in ALOS and in weight and mid–upper arm circumference at admission and discharge. ALOS significantly increased immediately after adaptations and then decreased to preadaptation levels. We found no meaningful changes in either weight or mid–upper arm circumference at admission or discharge. These findings indicate that adapted CMAM programs can remain effective.