Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.
Volume 27, Number 12—December 2021
- Clinical Characteristics of Corynebacterium Bacteremia Caused by Different Species, Japan, 2014–2020
- Use of a Novel Serological Assay to Measure the Seroprevalence of Zika Virus in the Philippines
- Surface‒Aerosol Stability and Pathogenicity of Diverse Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Strains, 2012‒2018
SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in a Rural and Urban Household Cohort during First and Second Waves of Infections, South Africa, July 2020–March 2021
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections may be underestimated because of limited access to testing. We measured SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in South Africa every 2 months during July 2020–March 2021 in randomly selected household cohorts in 2 communities. We compared seroprevalence to reported laboratory-confirmed infections, hospitalizations, and deaths to calculate infection–case, infection–hospitalization, and infection–fatality ratios in 2 waves of infection. Post–second wave seroprevalence ranged from 18% in the rural community children <5 years of age, to 59% in urban community adults 35–59 years of age. The second wave saw a shift in age distribution of case-patients in the urban community (from persons 35–59 years of age to persons at the extremes of age), higher attack rates in the rural community, and a higher infection–fatality ratio in the urban community. Approximately 95% of SARS-CoV-2 infections were not reported to national surveillance.
- Coronavirus Disease Contact Tracing Outcomes and Cost, Salt Lake County, Utah, United States, March–May 2020
- Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Households with Children, Southwest Germany, May–August 2020
Human Melioidosis Caused by Novel Transmission of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Freshwater Home Aquarium, United States
Nearly all cases of melioidosis in the continental United States are related to international travel to areas to which Burkholderia pseudomallei, the bacterium that causes melioidosis, is endemic. We report the diagnosis and clinical course of melioidosis in a patient from the United States who had no international travel history and the public health investigation to determine the source of exposure. We tested environmental samples collected from the patient’s home for B. pseudomallei by PCR and culture. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted on PCR-positive environmental samples, and results were compared with sequences from the patient’s clinical specimen. Three PCR-positive environmental samples, all collected from a freshwater home aquarium that had contained imported tropical fish, were a genetic match to the clinical isolate from the patient. This finding suggests a novel route of exposure and a potential for importation of B. pseudomallei, a select agent, into the United States from disease-endemic areas.
- Characterization of Swine Influenza A(H1N2) Variant, Alberta, Canada, 2020
- Four Filoviruses, 1 Hantavirus, and 1 Rhabdovirus in Freshwater Fish, Switzerland, 2017
- Using Serosurveillance to Map Risk for Anthrax Exposure in Feral Swine, Texas, USA
- Novel Use of Capture-Recapture Methods to Estimate Completeness of Contact Tracing during an Ebola Outbreak, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018–2020
- Mammarenaviruses of Rodents, South Africa and Zimbabwe
Heartland Virus Transmission, Suffolk County, New York, USA
During 2018, Heartland virus RNA was detected in an Amblyomma americanum tick removed from a resident of Suffolk County, New York, USA. The persons showed seroconversion. Tick surveillance and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serosurveys showed widespread distribution in Suffolk County, emphasizing a need for disease surveillance anywhere A. americanum ticks are established or emerging.
- Experimental Oronasal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from White-Tailed Deer to Suffolk Sheep
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater at Residential College, Maine, USA, August–November 2020
We used wastewater surveillance to identify 2 coronavirus disease outbreaks at a college in Maine, USA. Cumulative increases of >1 log10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in consecutive 24-hour composite samples preceded the outbreaks. For 76% of cases, RNA was identified in grab samples from residence halls <7 days before case discovery.
- SARS-CoV-2–Specific Antibodies in Domestic Cats during First COVID-19 Wave, Europe
- Incidence Trends for SARS-CoV2 Alpha and Beta Variants, Finland, Spring 2021
- SARS-CoV-2 Variants, South Sudan, January–March 2021
Large-Scale Screening of Asymptomatic Persons for SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern and Gamma Takeover, Brazil
We performed a large-scale severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 screening campaign using 2 PCR-based approaches, coupled with variant genotyping, aiming to provide a safer environment for employees of Federal University in Curitiba, Brazil. We observed the rapid spread of the Gamma variant of concern, which replaced other variants in <3 months.
- Incubation Period for Neuroinvasive Toscana Virus Infections
- Uptake, Retention, and Excretion of Infectious Prions by Experimentally Exposed Earthworms
- Potential Mosquito Vectors for Shuni Virus, South Africa, 2014–2018
- Rift Valley Fever Virus Seroprevalence among Humans, Northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, 2018–2019
- Increased Incidence of Melioidosis in Far North Queensland, Australia, 1998–2019
- Surge of Reported Intestinal Perforations in Typhoid Surveillance Sites, Madagascar
- Septic Polyarthritis Caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis
SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 Variant Infection in Malayan Tigers, Virginia, USA
We report infection of 3 Malayan tigers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant at a zoologic park in Virginia, USA. All tigers exhibited respiratory signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings show that tigers are susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant.
Breakthrough Infections of E484K-Harboring SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant, Lombardy, Italy
The Delta variant of concern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is dominant worldwide. We report a case cluster caused by Delta sublineage B.1.617.2 harboring the mutation E484K in Italy during July 11–July 29, 2021. This mutation appears to affect immune response and vaccine efficacy; monitoring its appearance is urgent.
- Coxiella burnetii in 3 Species of Turtles in the Upper Midwest, United States
- Real-time Projections of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 Variant in a University Setting, Texas, USA
Limited and Short-Lasting Virus Neutralizing Titers Induced by Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine
In vitro determination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibodies induced in serum samples from recipients of the CoronaVac vaccine showed a short protection period against the original virus strain and limited protection against variants of concern. These data provide support for vaccine boosters, especially variants of concern circulate.
Postmortem Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in Mouse Lung Tissue
The infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in deceased persons and organisms remains unclear. We studied transgenic K18 hACE2 mice to determine the kinetics of virus infectivity after host death. Five days after death, virus infectivity in the lung declined by >96% and RNA copies declined by 48.2%.
- SARS-CoV-2 Sequence Analysis during COVID-19 Case Surge, Liberia, 2021
Subclinical Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection Associated with Travel to the British Virgin Islands
Phylogenetic analysis of a clinical isolate associated with subclinical Burkholderia pseudomallei infection revealed probable exposure in the British Virgin Islands, where reported infections are limited. Clinicians should consider this geographic distribution when evaluating possible infection among persons with compatible travel history.
- Correlation between Incidence of Buruli Ulcer and Vector-Borne Diseases, Southeastern Australia, 2000–2020
Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination
We conducted a multi-institutional study in Taiwan and a systematic review of the literature for reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome after coronavirus disease vaccination. This condition, mostly the classic form and the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype, has been reported in 39 cases and has occurred within 2 weeks of vaccine administration.
Books and Media
- Modern Epidemics: from the Spanish Flu to COVID-19
Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance, California, USA, May 10, 2020–June 12, 2021
Outbreak of Mucormycosis in Coronavirus Disease Patients, Pune, India
We provide an overview of the epidemiology and clinical course of mucormycosis in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic era. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 178 patients with clinical or diagnostic, endoscopically or histopathologically confirmed rhino-sino-orbital or cerebral mucormycosis after COVID-19 treatment during the second wave of COVID-19 in Pune, India. Median time to symptom onset from COVID-19 detection was 28 days. Moderate or severe COVID-19 was seen in 73% of patients and diabetes in 74.2%. A total of 52.8% received steroids. Eschar over or inside the nose was seen in 75%, but baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were mostly unremarkable. Bone penetration was present in ≈90% of cases, 30% had soft-tissue swelling of the pterygopalatine fossa and 7% had cavernous sinus thrombosis, and 60% had multifocal mucormycosis. Of the 178 study cases, 151 (85%) underwent surgical debridement. Twenty-six (15%) died, and 16 (62%) of those had multifocal mucormycosis.
- Using the Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance System to Identify Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Australia, 2000‒2018
- Global Genome Diversity and Recombination in Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Transmission Dynamics of Large Coronavirus Disease Outbreak in Homeless Shelter, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2020
Mask Effectiveness for Preventing Secondary Cases of COVID-19, Johnson County, Iowa, USA
In September of 2020, the Iowa Department of Public Health released guidance stating that persons exposed to someone with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) need not quarantine if the case-patient and the contact wore face masks at the time of exposure. This guidance differed from that issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To determine the best action, we matched exposure information from COVID-19 case investigations with reported test results and calculated the secondary attack rates (SARs) after masked and unmasked exposures. Mask use by both parties reduced the SAR by half, from 25.6% to 12.5%. Longer exposure duration significantly increased SARs. Masks significantly reduced virus transmission when worn by both the case-patient and the contact, but SARs for each group were higher than anticipated. This finding suggests that quarantine after COVID-19 exposure is beneficial even if parties wore masks.
- Effect of Hepatitis E Virus RNA Universal Blood Donor Screening, Catalonia, Spain, 2017‒2020
- Coronavirus Disease Case Definitions, Diagnostic Testing Criteria, and Surveillance in 25 Countries with Highest Reported Case Counts
- Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant, Benin, West Africa, May–July 2021
SARS-CoV-2 Shedding in Semen and Oligozoospermia of Patient with Severe Coronavirus Disease 11 Weeks after Infection
We report severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in semen by using quantitative reverse transcription PCR during the late convalescent phase. Virus was associated with adequate humoral and cell-mediated responses, suggesting possible seeding of the immune-privileged testes. We provide longitudinal semen quality data for 6 other men, including 3 who had oligozoospermia.
- Use of Private Sector Workforce Respiratory Disease Short-Term Disability Claims to Assess SARS-CoV-2, Mexico, 2020
- Melioidosis Manifesting as Chronic Femoral Osteomyelitis in Patient, Ghana
- Low Seroprevalence among Undetected COVID-19 Cases, Faroe Islands, November 2020
- Use of Incoming Travelers Arriving at Hong Kong for Genomic Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2
Effectiveness of International Travel Controls for Delaying Local Outbreaks of COVID-19
During the coronavirus disease pandemic, international travel controls have been widely adopted. To determine the effectiveness of these measures, we analyzed data from 165 countries and found that early implementation of international travel controls led to a mean delay of 5 weeks in the first epidemic peak of cases.
- Postmortem Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2–Associated Deaths and Predictive Value of Standard Diagnostic Procedures
Books and Media
- Prepare and Protect: Safer Behaviors in Laboratories and Clinical Containment Settings
Volume 28, Number 2—February 2022
- Infection of Parthenogenetic Asian Longhorned Ticks with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus
- Role of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Cache Valley Virus Lineage Displacement, New York, USA