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Early Release

Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Volume 28, Supplement—October 2022

Synopses
  • Enhancing Respiratory Disease Surveillance to Detect COVID-19 in Shelters for Displaced Persons, Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2020–2021
    B. Knust et al.

    We developed surveillance guidance for COVID-19 in 9 temporary camps for displaced persons along the Thailand–Myanmar border. Arrangements were made for testing of persons presenting with acute respiratory infection, influenza-like illness, or who met the Thailand national COVID-19 Person Under Investigation case definition. In addition, testing was performed for persons who had traveled outside of the camps in outbreak-affected areas or who departed Thailand as resettling refugees. During the first 18 months of surveillance, May 2020–October 2021, a total of 6,190 specimens were tested, and 15 outbreaks (i.e., >1 confirmed COVID-19 cases) were detected in 7 camps. Of those, 5 outbreaks were limited to a single case. Outbreaks during the Delta variant surge were particularly challenging to control. Adapting and implementing COVID-19 surveillance measures in the camp setting were successful in detecting COVID-19 outbreaks and preventing widespread disease during the initial phase of the pandemic in Thailand.

  • CDC’s COVID-19 International Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation Program and Lessons from Earlier Vaccine Introductions
    H. M. Soeters et al.

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports international partners in introducing vaccines, including those against SARS-CoV-2 virus. CDC contributes to the development of global technical tools, guidance, and policy for COVID-19 vaccination and has established its COVID-19 International Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation (CIVIE) program. CIVIE supports ministries of health and their partner organizations in developing or strengthening their national capacities for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccination programs. CIVIE’s 7 priority areas for country-specific technical assistance are vaccine policy development, program planning, vaccine confidence and demand, data management and use, workforce development, vaccine safety, and evaluation. We discuss CDC’s work on global COVID-19 vaccine implementation, including priorities, challenges, opportunities, and applicable lessons learned from prior experiences with Ebola, influenza, and meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine introductions.

  • Leveraging International Influenza Surveillance Systems and Programs during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    P. Marcenac et al.

    A network of global respiratory disease surveillance systems and partnerships has been built over decades as a direct response to the persistent threat of seasonal, zoonotic, and pandemic influenza. These efforts have been spearheaded by the World Health Organization, country ministries of health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nongovernmental organizations, academic groups, and others. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention worked closely with ministries of health in partner countries and the World Health Organization to leverage influenza surveillance systems and programs to respond to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Countries used existing surveillance systems for severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness, respiratory virus laboratory resources, pandemic influenza preparedness plans, and ongoing population-based influenza studies to track, study, and respond to SARS-CoV-2 infections. The incorporation of COVID-19 surveillance into existing influenza sentinel surveillance systems can support continued global surveillance for respiratory viruses with pandemic potential.

  • Lessons Learned from CDC’s Global COVID-19 Early Warning and Response Surveillance System
    P. M. Ricks et al.

    Early warning and response surveillance (EWARS) systems were widely used during the early COVID-19 response. Evaluating the effectiveness of EWARS systems is critical to ensuring global health security. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) global COVID-19 EWARS (CDC EWARS) system and the resources CDC used to gather, manage, and analyze publicly available data during the prepandemic period. We evaluated data quality and validity by measuring reporting completeness and compared these with data from Johns Hopkins University, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and indicator-based data from the World Health Organization. CDC EWARS was integral in guiding CDC’s early COVID-19 response but was labor-intensive and became less informative as case-level data decreased and the pandemic evolved. However, CDC EWARS data were similar to those reported by other organizations, confirming the validity of each system and suggesting collaboration could improve EWARS systems during future pandemics.

  • Faith Community Engagement to Mitigate COVID-19 Transmission Associated with Mass Gathering, Uman, Ukraine, September 2021
    L. Erickson-Mamane et al.

    Annually, ≈30,000 Hasidic and Orthodox Jews travel to Uman, Ukraine, during the Jewish New Year to pray at the burial place of the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement. Many pilgrims come from the northeastern United States. The global health implications of this event were seen in 2019 when measles outbreaks in the United States and Israel were linked to the pilgrimage. The 2020 pilgrimage was cancelled as part of the COVID-19 travel restrictions imposed by the government of Ukraine. To prepare for the 2021 event, the National Public Health Institute, the Public Health Center of Ukraine, organized mitigation measures for pilgrims arriving in Uman, and the CDC COVID-19 International Task Force assisted with mitigation measures for pilgrims coming from the United States. We describe efforts to support COVID-19 mitigation measures before, during, and after this mass gathering and lessons learned for future mass gatherings during pandemics.

  • Adopting World Health Organization Multimodal Infection Prevention and Control Strategies to Respond to COVID-19, Kenya
    D. Kimani et al.

    The World Health Organization advocates a multimodal approach to improving infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, which Kenya adopted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Kenya Ministry of Health formed a national IPC committee for policy and technical leadership, coordination, communication, and training. During March–November 2020, a total of 69,892 of 121,500 (57.5%) healthcare workers were trained on IPC. Facility readiness assessments were conducted in 777 health facilities using a standard tool assessing 16 domains. A mean score was calculated for each domain across all facilities. Only 3 domains met the minimum threshold of 80%. The Ministry of Health maintained a national list of all laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. By December 2020, a total of 3,039 healthcare workers were confirmed to be SARS-CoV-2–positive, an infection rate (56/100,000 workers) 12 times higher than in the general population. Facility assessments and healthcare workers' infection data provided information to guide IPC improvements.

  • Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
    M. E. Peck et al.
  • Clinical and Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Agricultural Workers, Guatemala
    D. Olson et al.

    We evaluated clinical and socioeconomic burdens of respiratory disease in banana farm workers in Guatemala. We offered all eligible workers enrollment during June 15–December 30, 2020, and annually, then tracked them for influenza-like illnesses (ILI) through self-reporting to study nurses, sentinel surveillance at health posts, and absenteeism. Workers who had ILI submitted nasopharyngeal swab specimens for testing for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS-CoV-2, then completed surveys at days 0, 7, and 28. Through October 10, 2021, a total of 1,833 workers reported 169 ILIs (12.0 cases/100 person-years), and 43 (25.4%) were laboratory-confirmed infections with SARS-CoV-2 (3.1 cases/100 person-years). Workers who had SARS-CoV-2‒positive ILIs reported more frequent anosmia, dysgeusia, difficulty concentrating, and irritability and worse clinical and well-being severity scores than workers who had test result‒negative ILIs. Workers who had positive results also had greater absenteeism and lost income. These results support prioritization of farm workers in Guatemala for COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Use of Epidemiology Surge Support to Enhance Robustness and Expand Capacity of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Response, South Africa
    R. Taback-Esra et al.

    As COVID-19 cases increased during the first weeks of the pandemic in South Africa, the National Institute of Communicable Diseases requested assistance with epidemiologic and surveillance expertise from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention South Africa. By leveraging its existing relationship with the National Institute of Communicable Diseases for >2 months, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention South Africa supported data capture and file organization, data quality reviews, data analytics, laboratory strengthening, and the development and review of COVID-19 guidance This case study provides an account of the resources and the technical, logistical, and organizational capacity leveraged to support a rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa.

  • SARS-CoV-2 Prevalence in Malawi Based on Survey of Communities and Health Workers in 5 High-Burden Districts, October 2020
    J. Theu et al.
  • Outcomes after Acute Malnutrition Program Adaptations to COVID-19, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia
    T. Shragai et al.

    At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, protocols for community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) were implemented to support continuity of essential feeding services while mitigating COVID-19 transmission. To assess correlations between adaptation timing and CMAM program indicators, we evaluated routine program data in Uganda, Ethiopia, and Somalia for children 6–59 months of age. We specifically analyzed facility-level changes in total admissions, average length of stay (ALOS), total children screened for admission, and recovery rates before and after adaptations. We found no statistically significant changes in program indicators after adaptations. For Somalia, we also analyzed child-level changes in ALOS and in weight and mid–upper arm circumference at admission and discharge. ALOS significantly increased immediately after adaptations and then decreased to preadaptation levels. We found no meaningful changes in either weight or mid–upper arm circumference at admission or discharge. These findings indicate that adapted CMAM programs can remain effective.

  • Effect of Nigeria Presidential Task Force on COVID-19 Pandemic, Nigeria
    O. Bolu et al.

    Nigeria had a confirmed case of COVID-19 on February 28, 2020. On March 17, 2020, the Nigerian Government inaugurated the Presidential Task Force (PTF) on COVID-19 to coordinate the country’s multisectoral intergovernmental response. The PTF developed the National COVID-19 Multisectoral Pandemic Response Plan as the blueprint for implementing the response plans. The PTF provided funding, coordination, and governance for the public health response and executed resource mobilization and social welfare support, establishing the framework for containment measures and economic reopening. Despite the challenges of a weak healthcare infrastructure, staff shortages, logistic issues, commodity shortages, currency devaluation, and varying state government cooperation, high-level multisectoral PTF coordination contributed to minimizing the effects of the pandemic through early implementation of mitigation efforts, supported by a strong collaborative partnership with bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector organizations. We describe the lessons learned from the PTF COVID-19 for future multisectoral public health response.

  • Comparison of COVID-19 Pandemic Waves in 10 Countries in Southern Africa, 2020–2021
    J. Smith-Sreen et al.
  • India Field Epidemiology Training Program Response to COVID-19 Pandemic, 2020–2021
    S. Singh et al.

    The India Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) has played a critical role in India’s response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. During March 2020–June 2021, a total of 123 FETP officers from across 3 training hubs were deployed in support of India’s efforts to combat COVID-19. FETP officers have successfully mitigated the effect of COVID-19 on persons in India by conducting cluster outbreak investigations, performing surveillance system evaluations, and developing infection prevention and control tools and guidelines. This report discusses the successes of select COVID-19 pandemic response activities undertaken by current India FETP officers and proposes a pathway to augmenting India’s pandemic preparedness and response efforts through expansion of this network and a strengthened frontline public health workforce.

  • Effects of Decreased Immunization Coverage for Hepatitis B Virus Caused by COVID-19 in World Health Organization Western Pacific and African Regions, 2020
    H. J. Kabore et al.

    The World Health Organization–designated Western Pacific Region (WPR) and African Region (AFR) have the highest number of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted childhood immunization, threatening progress toward elimination of hepatitis B by 2030. We used a published mathematical model to estimate the number of expected and excess HBV infections and related deaths after 10% and 20% decreases in hepatitis B birth dose or third-dose hepatitis B vaccination coverage of children born in 2020 compared with prepandemic 2019 levels. Decreased vaccination coverage resulted in additional chronic HBV infections that were 36,342–395,594 in the WPR and 9,793–502,047 in the AFR; excess HBV-related deaths were 7,150–80,302 in the WPR and 1,177–67,727 in the AFR. These findings support the urgent need to sustain immunization services, implement catch-up vaccinations, and mitigate disruptions in hepatitis B vaccinations in future birth cohorts.

  • COVID-19 Incorporation into Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Systems in Belize, Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, and Peru, 2020–2021
    D. C. Shih et al.
  • Gaps in Publicly Shared SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance Data: An Analysis of Global Submissions
    E. C. Ohlsen et al.
  • Past as Prologue: Rubella Vaccination Program Lessons May Inform COVID-19 Vaccination
    M. Dixon et al.
  • The Future of Infodemic Surveillance as Public Health Surveillance
    H. Chiou et al.
  • Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, East Africa
    D. J. Gomes et al.

    The coronavirus disease pandemic has highlighted the need to establish and maintain strong infection prevention and control (IPC) practices, not only to prevent healthcare-associated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers and patients but also to prevent disruptions of essential healthcare services. In East Africa, where basic IPC capacity in healthcare facilities is limited, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported rapid IPC capacity building in healthcare facilities in 4 target countries: Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda. CDC supported IPC capacity-building initiatives at the healthcare facility and national levels according to each country’s specific needs, priorities, available resources, and existing IPC capacity and systems. In addition, CDC established a multicountry learning network to strengthen hospital level IPC, with an emphasis on peer-to-peer learning. We present an overview of the key strategies used to strengthen IPC in these countries and lessons learned from implementation.

  • Effectiveness of Whole-Virus COVID-19 Vaccine among Healthcare Personnel, Lima, Peru
    C. S. Arriola et al.

    In February 2021, Peru launched a COVID-19 vaccination campaign among healthcare personnel using an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The manufacturer recommended 2 vaccine doses 21 days apart. We evaluated vaccine effectiveness among an existing multiyear influenza vaccine cohort at 2 hospitals in Lima. We analyzed data on 290 participants followed during February–May 2021. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and provided weekly self-collected nasal swab samples for 16 weeks; samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Median participant follow-up was 2 (range 1–11) weeks. We performed multivariable logistic regression and adjusted for preselected characteristics. During the study, 25 (9%) participants tested SARS-CoV-2–positive. We estimated adjusted vaccine effectiveness at 95% (95% CI 70%–99%) among fully vaccinated participants and 100% (95% CI 88%–100%) among partially vaccinated participants. These data can inform the use and acceptance of inactivated whole-virus vaccine and support vaccination efforts in the region.

  • Effects of COVID-19 on Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Systems in the World Health Organization African Region, 2020
    J. Bigouette et al.

    Global emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 curtailed vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) surveillance activities, but little is known about which surveillance components were most affected. In May 2021, we surveyed 214 STOP (originally Stop Transmission of Polio) Program consultants to determine how VPD surveillance activities were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020, primarily in low- and middle-income countries, where program consultants are deployed. Our report highlights the responses from 154 (96%) of the 160 consultants deployed to the World Health Organization African Region, which comprises 75% (160/214) of all STOP Program consultants deployed globally in early 2021. Most survey respondents observed that VPD surveillance activities were somewhat or severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Reprioritization of surveillance staff and changes in health-seeking behaviors were factors commonly perceived to decrease VPD surveillance activities. Our findings suggest the need for strategies to restore VPD surveillance to prepandemic levels.

  • Leveraging PEPFAR-Supported Health Information Systems for COVID-19 Pandemic Response, Haiti
    M. Mirza et al.
  • A Nationally Representative Survey of COVID-19 in Pakistan, 2021–2022
    S. Aheron et al.
  • Building on Capacity Established through US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Programs to Respond to COVID-19, Cameroon
    E. K. Dokubo et al.
  • Lessons from Nigeria’s Adaptation of Global Health Initiatives during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    C. Ihekweazu

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Volume 28, Number 11—November 2022

Synopses
  • Severe Pneumonia Caused by Corynebacterium striatum in Adults, Seoul, South Korea, 2014–2019
    Y. Lee et al.

    We investigated the proportion and characteristics of severe Corynebacterium striatum pneumonia in South Korea during 2014–2019. As part of an ongoing observational study of severe pneumonia among adult patients, we identified 27 severe C. striatum pneumonia cases. Most (70.4%) cases were hospital-acquired, and 51.9% of patients were immunocompromised. C. striatum cases among patients with severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) increased from 1.0% (2/200) during 2014–2015 to 5.4% (10/185) during 2018–2019, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among severe HAP cases decreased from 12.0% to 2.7% during the same timeframe. During 2018–2019, C. striatum was responsible for 13.3% of severe HAP cases from which bacterial pathogens were identified. The 90-day mortality rates were similarly high in the C. striatum and MRSA groups. C. striatum was a major cause of severe HAP and had high mortality rates. This pathogen is emerging as a possible cause for severe pneumonia, especially among immunocompromised patients.

  • Multispecies Outbreak of Nocardia Infections in Heart-Transplant Recipients and Association with Climate Conditions, Australia
    J. Li et al.
Research
  • Spatiotemporal Patterns of Anthrax, Vietnam, 1990–2015
    M. A. Walker et al.
  • Invasive Infections Caused by Lancefield Groups C/G and A Streptococci, Western Australia, Australia, 2000–2018
    C. M. Wright et al.
  • Ascertaining Current Prevalence of Histoplasmosis among Persons with AIDS, Nigeria
    R. O. Oladele et al.
  • Age-Stratified Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in the Pre- and Post-Vaccination Era, Japan, February 2020–March 2022
    S. Yamayoshi et al.
  • Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Incidence and Epidemiology of Catheter-Related Bacteremia, Spain
    O. Gasch et al.

    We compared hospital-acquired catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) episodes diagnosed at acute care hospitals in Catalonia, Spain, during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with those detected during 2007–2019. We compared the annual observed and predicted CRB rates by using the negative binomial regression model and calculated stratified annual root mean squared errors. A total of 10,030 episodes were diagnosed during 2007–2020. During 2020, the observed CRB incidence rate was 0.29/103 patient-days, whereas the predicted CRB rate was 0.14/103 patient-days. The root mean squared error was 0.153. Thus, a substantial increase in hospital-acquired CRB cases was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the rate predicted from 2007–2019. The incidence rate was expected to increase by 1.07 (95% CI 1–1.15) for every 1,000 COVID-19–related hospital admissions. We recommend maintaining all CRB prevention efforts regardless of the coexistence of other challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Effectiveness of Second mRNA COVID-19 Booster Vaccine in Immunocompromised Persons and Long-Term Care Facility Residents
    Y. Kim et al.

    We used a nationwide population registry in South Korea to estimate the effect of a second booster dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine on the risk for laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, critical infection, and death in immunocompromised persons and long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. During February 16–May 7, 2022, among 972,449 eligible persons, 736,439 (75.7%) received a first booster and 236,010 (24.3%) persons received a second booster. Compared with the first booster group, at 30–53 days, the second booster recipients had vaccine effectiveness (VE) against all infections of 22.28% (95% CI 19.35%–25.11%), VE against critical infection of 56.95% (95% CI 29.99%–73.53%), and VE against death of 62.96% (95% CI 34.18%–79.15%). Our findings provide real-world evidence that a second booster dose of mRNA vaccine substantially increases protection against critical infection and death in these high-risk population groups.

  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Exposure, Disease Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes during COVID-19 Pandemic in National Cohort of Adults, United States
    M. M. Robertson et al.

    We examined racial/ethnic disparities for COVID-19 seroconversion and hospitalization within a prospective cohort (n = 6,740) in the United States enrolled in March 2020 and followed-up through October 2021. Potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure, susceptibility to COVID-19 complications, and access to healthcare varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanic and Black non-Hispanic participants had more exposure risk and difficulty with healthcare access than white participants. Participants with more exposure had greater odds of seroconversion. Participants with more susceptibility and more barriers to healthcare had greater odds of hospitalization. Race/ethnicity positively modified the association between susceptibility and hospitalization. Findings might help to explain the disproportionate burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections and complications among Hispanic/Latino/a and Black non-Hispanic persons. Primary and secondary prevention efforts should address disparities in exposure, vaccination, and treatment for COVID-19.

  • Akkermansia muciniphila Associated with Improved Linear Growth among Young Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    C. George et al.
  • Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O139, Zhejiang, China, 1994–2018
    Y. Luo et al.
  • Fungal Endophthalmitis Outbreaks after Cataract Surgery, South Korea, 2020
    S. Yoon et al.
  • Coronavirus Antibody Responses before SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic, Africa and Thailand
    Y. Li et al.
Dispatches
  • Polyclonal Dissemination of OXA-232 Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, France, 2013–2021
    C. Emeraud et al.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Refugee Settlement during COVID-19 Pandemic, Uganda, April 2021
    L. Nyakarahuka et al.
  • Rift Valley Fever Outbreak during COVID-19 Surge, Uganda, 2021
    C. M. Cossaboom et al.

    Rift Valley fever, endemic or emerging throughout most of Africa, causes considerable risk to human and animal health. We report 7 confirmed Rift Valley fever cases, 1 fatal, in Kiruhura District, Uganda, during 2021. Our findings highlight the importance of continued viral hemorrhagic fever surveillance, despite challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Molecular Diagnosis of Haplorchis pumilio Eggs from Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Lake Victoria, Tanzania
    H. Shin et al.
  • Cluster of Norovirus Genogroup IX Outbreaks in Long-Term Care Facilities, Utah, USA, 2021
    B. Osborn et al.
  • Imported Haycocknema perplexum Infection, United States
    B. S. Pritt et al.

    We report an imported case of myositis caused by a rare parasite, Haycocknema perplexum, in Australia in a 37-year-old man who had progressive facial, axial, and limb weakness, dysphagia, dysphonia, increased levels of creatine kinase and hepatic aminotransferases, and peripheral eosinophilia for 8 years. He was given extended, high-dose albendazole.

  • Deaths Related to Chagas Disease and COVID-19 Co-Infection, Brazil, March–December 2020
    F. R. Martins-Melo et al.

    We analyzed epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of 492 deaths related to Chagas disease and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) co-infection in Brazil during March‒December 2020. Cumulative co-infected death rates were highest among advanced age groups, persons of Afro-Brazilian ethnicity and with low education levels, and geographically distributed mainly in major Chagas disease‒endemic areas.

  • COVID-19 among Chronic Dialysis Patients after First Year of Pandemic, Argentina
    A. Vallejos et al.

    We performed a descriptive study to characterize effects from COVID-19 among chronic dialysis patients compared with the general population in Argentina during March 2020–February 2021. COVID-19 case-fatality rate of chronic dialysis patients was 10 times the national rate; the age-standardized mortality ratio was 6.8 (95% CI 6.3–7.3).

  • Sequence-Based Identification of Metronidazole-Resistant Isolates of Clostridioides difficile
    W. Smits et al.
  • Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children, Catalonia, Spain
    P. Ciruela et al.
  • Jamestown Canyon Virus in Collected Mosquitoes, Maine, United States, 2017–2019
    E. F. Schneider et al.
Research Letters
  • Reinfections with Different SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Subvariants, France
    N. Nguyen et al.

    We describe 188 patients in France who were successively infected with different SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants, including BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5. Time between 2 infections was <90 days for 50 (26.6%) patients and <60 days for 28 (14.9%) patients. This finding suggests that definitions for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection require revision.

  • Human Parainfluenza Virus in Homeless Shelters before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Washington, USA
    E. J. Chow et al.

    To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 2 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019–2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.

  • Serologic Evidence of Human Exposure to Ehrlichiosis Agents in Japan
    H. Su et al.
  • SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 Challenge after Ancestral or Delta Infection in Mice
    M. Baz et al.

    We assessed cross-reactivity to BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 of neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Primary infection elicited homologous antibodies with poor cross-reactivity to Omicron strains. This pattern remained after BA.1 challenge, although ancestral- and Delta-infected mice were protected from BA.1 infection.

  • Vaccine Effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 Variant P.1 in Nursing-Facility Residents, Washington, USA, April 2021
    J. W. Lewis et al.

    A SARS-CoV-2 P.1 (Gamma) variant outbreak occurred at a skilled nursing facility in Washington, USA, in April 2021. Effectiveness of 2 doses of mRNA vaccines against P.1 infection among residents in this outbreak was 75.0% (95% CI 44.5%–88.7%), similar to effectiveness for other pre-Delta variants among long-term care residents.

  • Monkeypox Virus Transmission to Healthcare Worker through Needlestick Injury, Brazil
    L. Carvalho et al.

    We describe monkeypox virus (MPXV) transmission from a patient to a healthcare worker through needlestick injury. A lesion appeared at the inoculation site 5 days after injury. Blood tested MPXV-positive by PCR before symptoms worsened; blood remained MPXV-positive at discharge 19 days after symptom onset. Postexposure prophylaxis could prevent potential MPXV bloodborne transmission.

  • Monkeypox in Patient Immunized with ACAM2000 Smallpox Vaccine During 2022 Outbreak
    M. Turner et al.

    We report a case of monkeypox in the United States in a patient who had been vaccinated with ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine 8 years earlier. Despite his vaccination status, he still contracted disease. He showed prodromal symptoms preceding development of painless penile lesions that later coalesced.

  • TIGIT Monoallelic Nonsense Variant in Patient with Severe COVID-19 Infection, Thailand
    P. Sodsai et al.

    A heterozygous nonsense variant in the TIGIT gene was identified in a patient in Thailand who had severe COVID-19, resulting in lower TIGIT expression in T cells. The patient’s T cells produced higher levels of cytokines upon stimulation. This mutation causes less-controlled immune responses, which might contribute to COVID-19 severity.

Etymologia
Online Report
  • Increased Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Bacteria in Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    G. Thomas et al.

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Volume 28, Number 12—December 2022

Synopses
  • Iceland As Stepping Stone for Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus between Europe and North America
    A. Günther et al.
  • Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics and Therapeutic Management of Patients with Vibrio Infections, Bay of Biscay, France, 2001–2019
    F. Hoefler et al.
Research
  • Continued Circulation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Variants and Detection of Novel Transmission Foci, the Netherlands
    H. J. Esser et al.
  • Observational Cohort Study of Evolving Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Virological Features of Monkeypox in Southern France
    N. Cassir et al.
Dispatches
  • Possible Occupational Infection of Healthcare Workers with Monkeypox Virus, Brazil
    R. Salvato et al.

    We evaluated epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections sampled from 2 healthcare nurses. Five days after collecting samples from an infected patient, the nurses showed typical MPXV manifestations; quantitative PCR and whole-genome sequencing confirmed MPXV infection, most likely transmitted through contact with fomites.

  • Isolation of Bat Sarbecoviruses, Japan
    S. Murakami et al.
  • Myocarditis Attributable to Monkeypox Virus Infection in 2 Patients, United States, 2022
    G. Rodriguez-Nava et al.

    We report 2 immunocompetent and otherwise healthy adults in the United States who had monkeypox and required hospitalization for viral myocarditis. Both patients were unvaccinated against orthopoxviruses. They had shortness of breath or chest pain and elevated cardiac biomarkers. No immediate complications were observed. They were discharged home after symptoms resolved.

  • Monkeypox Virus Detection in Different Clinical Specimen Types
    M. Hasso et al.
Research Letters
  • Dirofilaria repens Testicular Infection in a Child from Italy
    S. Ugolini et al.
  • Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection, Thailand, 2019–2020
    P. Rattanakomol et al.
Letter
  • Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease as Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox, Germany, August 2022
    A. Fathi and S. Schmiedel
Books and Media
  • Global Health Security: A Blueprint for the Future
    K. M. Bianchi

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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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