Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007
Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection and Immunodeficiency
To the Editor: Disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection has been noted in patients with primary immunodeficiency. Incidence rates have ranged from 0.06 to 1.56 cases per million vaccinated, and mortality rates have remained at ≈60% (1–7). Of 946 patients with primary immunodeficiency, including 29 with severe combined immunodeficiencies, diagnosed from 1980 through 2006 at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw, adverse events after BCG vaccination were observed in 16 (8,9). All 16 were children who had been vaccinated at birth with BCG, Brazilian strain (BioMed, Lublin, Poland).
Four patients with severe combined immunodeficiency showed adverse reactions to BCG. Patient M.K. had mild inflammation at the site of the BCG injection and was successfully treated with rifampin. The patient subsequently received a bone marrow transplant, and 2 months later poor appetite, failure to thrive, and subfebrile condition were noted. Disseminated skin changes (with pus formation in the subcutaneous layer), osteomyelitis, and multiple lesions in the liver were found. A skin biopsy showed tuberculoma formations, which were PCR-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct [MTD] Test, Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) but had negative culture results. Complete recovery, including full immunologic reconstitution, was reached after 12 months of treatment with triple antituberculosis (TB) therapy (rifampin, isoniazid, and ciprofloxacin). Patient M.C., a 6-month-old boy, was admitted to an intensive care unit because of respiratory insufficiency. An unhealed BCG vaccination site was noted. Bronchopulmonary lavage samples were tested for M. bovis; positive PCR and culture results led to the diagnosis of disseminated BCG infection. Despite intensive anti-TB therapy, the child died of multiple organ failure. Autopsy showed typical granuloma formations and a hypoplastic thymus, typical for severe combined immunodeficiency. Male patients S.D. and C.G. were admitted to intensive care units at 6 and 8 months of age, respectively, with lymphadenopathy and multiple organ insufficiency. Each boy died of multiple organ failure; postmortem examination found granuloma formation and a hypoplastic thymus in each (8).
Eight patients with severe combined immunodeficiency had local adverse events after vaccination with BCG. Inflammation <1 cm in diameter at the vaccination site was observed for all 8. For all except 1, dual anti-TB therapy (rifampin, isoniazid) or monotherapy was successful. For 1 of these patients, anti-TB treatment was stopped 3 months after bone marrow transplant, but increasing inflammation and lymphadenitis appeared 1 month later, with positive PCR and negative culture results for Mycobacterium spp. After 12 months of triple anti-TB therapy, this patient fully recovered.
In 2-month-old female patient, W.M., who had interferon-γ–receptor deficiency, axillary lymphadenopathy with normal healing of the vaccination site was noted 7 weeks after BCG vaccination. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was diagnosed by histopathologic methods. Despite dual anti-TB therapy and streptomycin administration, the girl died. At autopsy, multiple tuberculous granulomas were found (5).
In 4-month-old female patient M.K., who had interleukin-2–receptor deficiency, axillary lymphadenopathy with positive results from Mycobacterium typing was noted. Dual anti-TB therapy for 12 months produced good results.
In 7-month-old female patient B.B., axillary lymphadenopathy was noted. Mycobacteria PCR-positive for the M. tuberculosis complex were found in the purulent secretion. Despite dual anti-TB therapy, the patient experienced 2 episodes of relapse. After another 2 years of anti-TB therapy, disseminated BCG infection, with pulmonary consequences, developed.
In patient R.C., a 6-month-old boy, osteomyelitis was diagnosed, and delayed healing of the BCG vaccination scar was noted. Investigation of his immunologic status showed no abnormalities. However, because granulomatous inflammation was present in a bone biopsy sample and staining for BCG produced a positive result, triple anti-TB therapy was provided for 12 months, with good results.
The literature describes >200 cases of disseminated BCG infection in patients with primary immunodeficiency (1–7). The diagnostic difficulties described for 8 of our patients with primary immunodeficiency have been noted by others (1–6,8–10). In only 2 cases was the Mycobacterium species successfully isolated and identified as M. tuberculosis complex, and in 1 case it was the M. bovis BCG strain. We propose novel criteria for the diagnosis of disseminated BCG infection in persons with primary immunodeficiency (Table). These criteria have recently been submitted to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies.
We believe that patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and any form of mild local changes at the BCG injection site should be given anti-TB therapy, which should be continued until complete immunologic reconstitution occurs after bone marrow transplant. Disseminated BCG infection with regional lymph node involvement needs at least triple anti-TB therapy followed by long-term prophylaxis. Disseminated BCG infection needs anti-TB therapy, including ≥4 anti-TB drugs, until the patient fully recovers.
E.A.B.thanks Peter Folb, Dina Pfeifer, and Adwoa Bentsi-Enchill, for encouragement in writing this article.
The investigation was supported by grant EURO-POLICY-primary immunodeficiency SP23-CT-2005-006411 and national project no. PBZ-KBN-119/PO5/04.
- Newport MJ, Huxley CM, Huston S, Hawrylowicz CM, Oostra BA, Williamson R, A mutation in the interferon–gamma–receptor gene and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1941–9. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casanova JL, Jouanguy E, Lamhamedi S, Blanche S, Fischer A. Immunological conditions of children with BCG disseminated infection. Lancet. 1995;346:581. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casanova JL, Blanche S, Emile JF, Jouanguy E, Lamhamedi S, Altare F, Idiopathic disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection: a French national retrospective study. Pediatrics. 1996;98:774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fieschi C, Dupuis S, Catherinot E, Feinberg J, Bustamante J, Breiman A, Low penetrance, broad resistance, and favourable outcome of interleukin 12 receptor β1 deficiency: medical and immunogical implications. J Exp Med. 2003;197:527–35. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liberek A, Korzon M, Bernatowska E, Kurenko-Deptuch M, Rydlewska M. Vaccination-related Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:860–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heyderman RS, Morgan G, Levinsky R, Strobel S. Successful bone marrow transplantation and treatment of BCG infection in two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 1991;150:477–80. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalez B, Moreno S, Burdach R, Valenzuela MT, Herinquez A, Ramos MI. Clinical presentation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin infections in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989;8:201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolska-Kusnierz B, Pac M, Pietrucha B, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Klaudel-Dreszler M, Kurenko-Deptuch M, Twenty five years of investigation into primary immunodeficiency diseases in the Department of Immunology, Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw. Central European Journal of Immunology. 2005;30:104–14. Also available at http://www.termedia.pl/magazine.php?magazine_id=10&article_id=6799&magazine_subpage=ABSTRACT [cited 2007 Mar 19].
- Bonilla FA, Bernstein IL, Khan DA, Ballas ZJ, Chinen J, Frank MM, Practice parameter for the diagnosis and the management of primary immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94(Suppl 1):S1–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Folb PI, Bernatowska E, Chen R, Clemens J, Dodoo AN, Ellenberg SS, A global perspective on vaccine safety and public health: the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1926–31. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
TableCite This Article
Table of Contents – Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007
|EID Search Options|
|Advanced Article Search – Search articles by author and/or keyword.|
|Articles by Country Search – Search articles by the topic country.|
|Article Type Search – Search articles by article type and issue.|
Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:
Ewa Anna Bernatowska, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Department of Immunology, Av. Dzieci Polskich, 20 Warsaw, 04-730 Mazovia, Poland;