Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008
Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India
|Characteristic||ELISA||SNT||NiV SNT comparisons,
|No. NiV reactive/ no. tested||No. HeV reactive/ no. tested||No. NiV positive/total (%)
[median titer; range]|
|Total||26/41||5/41||20/39‡ (51) [80; 5–640]|
|Male||10/12||3/12||8/12 (67) [60; 20–640]||0.300|
|Female||16/29||2/29||12/27‡ (44) [80; 5–640]|
|Lactating||12/20||2/20||8/19‡ (42) [80;20–640]||1.00|
|Nonlactating||4/9||0/9||4/8‡ (50) [80;5–80]|
|Body condition score§|
|Poor||5/9||0/9||1/9 (11) [640; NA]||P v F: 0.005; F v G: 0.315; P v G: 0.505|
|Fair||16/24||5/24||16/23 (70) [80; 5–640]|
|Good||3/6||0/6||2/5 (40) [60; 40–80]|
*SNT, serum neutralization test; NiV, Nipah virus; HeV, Hendra virus; NA, not applicable; P, poor; F, fair; G, good.
†Fisher exact test p value significant at <0.05.
‡Two samples had insufficient plasma for SNT (both were ELISA negative); sample 1 was from a nonlactating adult female with a good body condition score (BCS) and the other was from a lactating adult with a fair BCS. A third sample, a nonlactating adult female with a good BCS had equivocal NiV/HeV SNT titers (5), which was attributed to an unspecified henipavirus and considered negative for NiV and HeV.
§Two pre-weaned pups (1 male, NiV SNT negative; 1 female, NiV SNT positive titer 80) were excluded from the BCS dataset because of their physical immaturity.
- Chadha MS, Comer JA, Lowe L, Rota PA, Rollin PE, Bellini WJ, Nipah virus-associated encephalitis outbreak, Siliguri, India.Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:235–40.
- Chua KB, Bellini W, Rota P, Harcourt B, Tamin A, Lam S, Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus.Science. 2000;288:1432–5.
- Hsu VP, Hossain MJ, Parashar UD, Ali MM, Ksiazek TG, Kuzmin I, Nipah virus encephalitis reemergence, Bangladesh.Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2082–7.
- Selvey LA, Wells RM, McCormack JG, Ansford AJ, Murray PK, Rogers RJ, Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus.Med J Aust. 1995;162:642–5.
- Epstein JH, Field HE, Luby S, Pulliam JR, Daszak P. Nipah virus: impact, origins, and causes of emergence.Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2006;8:59–65.
- Iehlé C, Razafitrimo G, Razainirina J, Andriaholinirina N, Goodman SM, Faure C, Henipavirus and Tioman virus antibodies in pteropodid bats, Madagascar.Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:159–61.
- Wacharapluesadee S, Lumlertdacha B, Boongird K, Wanghongsa S, Chanhome L, Rollin P, Bat Nipah virus, Thailand.Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1949–51.
- Halpin K, Young PL, Field HE, Mackenzie JS. Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus.J Gen Virol. 2000;81:1927–32.
- Luby S, Rahman M, Hossain MJ, Ahmed BN, Gurley E, Banu S, Recurrent Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2001–2007.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:273.
- Middleton DJ, Westbury HA, Morrissy CJ, van der Heide BM, Russell GM, Braun MA, Experimental Nipah virus infection in pigs and cats.J Comp Pathol. 2002;126:124–36.
- Daniels P, Ksiazek T, Eaton BT. Laboratory diagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infections.Microbes Infect. 2001;3:289–95.
- Yob JM, Field H, Rashdi AM, Morissy C, van der Heide B, Rota P, Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in penninsular Maylaysia.Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:439–41.
- Mackenzie JS, Field HE, Guyatt KJ. Managing emerging diseases borne by fruit bats (flying foxes), with particular reference to henipaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus.J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94:59S–69S.
- Plowright RK, Field HE, Smith C, Divljan A, Palmer C, Tabor G, Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapularus).Proc Biol Sci.2008;275:861–9.
- Middleton DJ, Morrissy CJ, van der Heide BM, Russell GM, Braun MA, Westbury HA, Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus).J Comp Pathol. 2007;136:266–72.
- Luby SP, Rahman M, Hossain MJ, Blum LS, Husain MM, Gurley E, Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh.Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1888–94.