Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010
Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories
|Ebola||Fingerstick while manipulating infected guinea pig tissue, 1977 (5); percutaneous exposure to blood from a Zaire Ebola virus–infected rodent, 2004 (7)|
|Marburg||3 laboratory acquired infections since the mid-1980s; 1 death occurred in Russia; no details available (8)|
|Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever||8 cases before 1980 compiled by SALS; no details available (9)|
|Lassa||1 case reported in 1970 with limited details provided (10)|
|Junin||21 cases before 1980 compiled by SALS; no details available (9)|
|Machupo||1 person exposed to aerosolized blood from a broken test tube (11)|
*SALS, Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laboratory Safety.
- Peters CJ, Zaki SR. Overview of viral hemorrhagic fevers. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases. Principles, pathogens, and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006. p. 726–33.
- Wilson DE, Chosewood LC, eds. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories. 5th ed. Washington: US Government Printing Office; 2007 [cited 2009 Aug 5]. http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm
- Paweska JT, Sewlall NH, Ksiazek TG, Blumberg LH, Hale MJ, Lipkin WI, Nosocomial outbreak of novel arenavirus infection, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1598–602.
- Le Duc JW, Anderson K, Bloom ME, Estep JE, Feldmann H, Geisbert JB, Framework for leadership and training of Biosafety Level 4 laboratory workers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1685–8.
- Emond RT, Evans B, Bowen ET, Lloyd G. A case of Ebola virus infection. BMJ. 1977;2:541–4.
- Formenty P, Hatz C, Le Guenno B, Stoll A, Rogenmoser P, Widmer A. Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Côte d’Ivoire: clinical and biologic presentation. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(Suppl 1):S48–53.
- Akinfeeva A, Akisonova O Vasilevich I, Ginko ZI, Zarkov KA, Zubavichene NM, et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever [in Russian]. Infektsionnie Bolezni. 2005;3:85–8.
- Falzarano D, Feldmann H. Marburg virus. In: Mahy BW, Regenmortel MH, editors. Encyclopedia of virology, 3rd ed. Oxford (UK): Elsevier; 2008. p. 272–80.
- Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laboratory Safety. Laboratory safety for arboviruses and certain other viruses of vertebrates. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980;29:1359–81.
- Leifer E, Gocke DJ, Bourne H. Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. II. Report of a laboratory acquired infection treated with plasma from a person recently recovered from the disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1970;19:676–9.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. International notes. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever—El Beni Department, Bolivia, 1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43:943–6.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1988;37:1–15.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995;44:475–9.
- Atkin S, Anaraki S, Gothard P, Walsh A, Brown D, Gopal R, The first case of Lassa fever imported from Mali to the United Kingdom. Eurosurveillance. 2009;14:1–3.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imported Lassa fever—New Jersey, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:894–7.
- Haas WH, Breuer T, Pfaff G, Schmitz H, Kohler P, Asper M, Imported Lassa fever in Germany: surveillance and management of contact persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1254–8.
- Günther S, Emmerich P, Laue T, Kühle O, Asper M, Jung A, Imported Lassa fever in Germany: molecular characterization of a new Lassa virus strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:466–76.
- Richards GA, Murphy S, Jobson R, Mer M, Zinman C, Taylor R, Unexpected Ebola virus in a tertiary setting: clinical and epidemiological aspects. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:240–4.
- Paddock C. CDC confirms first case of Marburg fever in Colorado. Med News Today. Feb 9, 2009.
- Timen A, Koopmans MP, Vossen AC, van Doornum GJ, Gunther S, van den Berkmortel F, Response to imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1171–5.
- Ergonul O, Zeller H, Celikbas A, Dokuzoguz B. The lack of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in healthcare workers in an endemic region. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:48–51.
- Kortepeter MG, Martin JW, Rusnak JM, Cieslak TJ, Warfield KL, Anderson EL, Managing potential laboratory exposure to Ebola virus by using a patient biocontainment care unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:881–7.
- Jahrling P, Rodak C, Bray M, Davey RT. Triage and management of accidental laboratory exposures to BioSafety level-3 and -4 agents. Biosecur Bioterror. 2009;7:1–8.
- Department of Occupational Health and Safety. National Institutes of Health [cited 2009 Aug 5]. http://orf.od.nih.gov/PoliciesAndGuidelines/BiomedicalandAnimalResearchFacilitiesDesignPoliciesandGuidelines/policy-index.htm
- Collins CH, Kennedy DA. Laboratory-acquired infections. History, incidence, causes and preventions. 4th ed. Oxford (UK): Butterworth-Heinemann; 1999. p. 1–37.
- Rusnak JM, Kortepeter MG, Aldis J, Boudreau E. Experience in the medical management of potential laboratory exposures to agents of bioterrorism on the basis of risk assessment at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:801–11.
- Helmick CG, Webb PA, Scribner CL, Krebs JW, McCormick JB. No evidence for increased risk of Lassa fever infection in hospital staff. Lancet. 1986;2:1202–5.
- Armstrong LR, Dembry LM, Rainey PM, Russi MB, Khan AS, Fischer SH, Management of a Sabiá virus infected patient in a US hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20:176–82.
- Anderson MG, Frenkel LD, Homann S, Guffey J. A case of severe monkeypox virus disease in an American child: emerging infections and changing professional values. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:1093–8.
- Garrett L. Filth and decay. Pneumonic plague hits India and the world ill responds. In: Garrett L. Betrayal of trust. The collapse of global public health. New York: Hyperion; 2000. p. 15–49.
- Alexander GC, Wynia MK. Ready and willing? Physicians’ sense of preparedness for bioterrorism. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003;22:189–97.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imported plague—New York City, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:725–8.
- Smith M. Man infected with XDR TB is quarantined in Atlanta. Med Page Today. 2007 May 29.
- Rhodes K. High-containment BioSafety laboratories: preliminary observations on the oversight of the proliferation of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the United States. GAO testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, October 4, 2007. GAO-08–108T [cited 2009 Aug 6]. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-08-108T
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