Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014
Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses
|Enhanced neutrophil and monocyte motility and emigration|
|Enhanced phagocytosis and pinocytosis|
|Increased oxygen radical production by phagocytes|
|Increased interferon production|
|Increased antiviral, antitumor, or antiproliferative, and natural killer cell stimulating activities of interferon|
|Potentiated interferon-induced anti-anaphylaxis (anergy)|
|Enhanced natural killer complement activation|
|Enhanced expression of Fc receptors|
|Increased T-helper cell activation, expression, recruitment, and cytotoxic activity|
|Blocked T-suppressor cell activity|
|Increased antibody production|
|Enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α|
|Increased T-cell proliferative response to nonspecific mitogens, interleukin-1 and −2, and allogeneic lymphocytes|
|Increased killing of intracellular bacteria|
|Increased bactericidal effect of antimicrobial agents|
|Induced cytoprotective heat-shock proteins in host cells|
|Induced pathogen heat-shock proteins, which activate host defenses|
|Induced cytoprotective heat-shock proteins in host cells|
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