Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020

Influence of Rainfall on Leptospira Infection and Disease in a Tropical Urban Setting, Brazil

Kathryn P. Hacker1, Gielson A. Sacramento1, Jaqueline S. Cruz, Daiana de Oliveira, Nivison Nery, Janet C. Lindow, Mayara Carvalho, Jose Hagan, Peter J. Diggle, Mike Begon, Mitermayer G. Reis, Elsio A. Wunder, Albert I. Ko1, and Federico Costa1Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (K.P. Hacker); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (K.P. Hacker, J.C. Lindow, J. Hagan, E.A. Wunder, Jr., A.I. Ko, F. Costa); Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil (G.A. Sacramento, J.S. Cruz, D. de Oliveira, N. Nery, Jr., J.C. Lindow, M. Carvalho, J. Hagan, M.G Reis, A.I. Ko, F. Costa); Montana State University Bozeman, Bozeman, Montana, USA (J.C. Lindow); Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK (P.J. Diggle); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (P.J. Diggle); University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (M. Begon); Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (M.G. Reis, F. Costa)

Main Article

Table 2

Association of cumulative rainfall and semiannual follow-up period with risk for Leptospira infection, Salvador, Brazil, 2013–2015*

Variable Odds ratio (95% CI)
Per year of age 1.02 (1.02–1.03)
Male sex 1.98 (1.48–2.64)
Cumulative rainfall, cm†
0.986 (0.977–0.995)
1 Referent
2 1.15 (0.63–2.10)
3 0.30 (0.15–0.59)
4 0.44 (0.20–0.97)

*We used Generalized Estimating Equation to evaluate the association of rainfall, follow-up period, and patient age and sex on Leptospira infection, as ascertained by serologic evidence, assuming a dependence on the individual level across the 4 repeated measures.
†Cumulative amount of rainfall experienced by participant between sequential samples.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: January 19, 2020
Page updated: January 19, 2020
Page reviewed: January 19, 2020
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.