Volume 26, Number 3—March 2020
Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China
|Type of samples||No. samples||Median monthly positive rate, % (95% CI)
|Poultry samples†||1,239||0.0 (0.0–2.5)||5.8 (0.0–15.0)||64.6 (55.0–67.5)|
|Oropharyngeal||1,239||0.0 (0.0–2.5)||5.8 (0.0–13.3)||60.0 (52.5–67.5)|
|Environmental samples||1,734||6.2 (0.0–11.8)||4.2 (1.6–22.0)||73.8 (60.0–79.4)|
|Poultry holding zone‡||965||2.9 (0.0–6.3)||3.0 (0–20.0)||68.2 (56.0–75.9)|
|Fecal droppings||424||0.0 (0.0–7.7)||0.0 (0.0–11.1)||58.3 (50.0–66.7)|
|Drinking water||364||0.0 (0.0–8.3)||3.3 (0.0–15.4)||83.3 (66.7–100.0)|
|Poultry feed||177||0.0 (0.0–11.1)||0.0 (0.0–9.1)||50.0 (33.3–70.0)|
|Poultry slaughtering zone||457||2.2 (0.0–25.0)||6.1 (0.0–22.2)||78.6 (59.5–87.5)|
|Defeathering machine||250||0.0 (0.0–20.0)||0.0 (0.0–20.0)||86.2 (70.0–100.0)|
|Defeathering area||207||0.0 (0.0–25.0)||0.0 (0.0–12.5)||73.2 (50.0–87.5)|
|Poultry selling zone||194||27.9 (0.0–50.0)||0.0 (0.0–14.3)||91.2 (60.0–100.0)|
|Chopping board||141||33.0 (0.0–50.0)||0.0 (0.0–25.0)||100.0 (71.4–100.0)|
|Display table||53||0.0 (0.0–66.7)||0.0 (0.0–14.3)||92.9 (25.0–100.0)|
|Air§||118||0.0 (0.0–25.0)||0.0 (0.0–16.7)||75.0 (50.0–100.0)|
*AIV, avian influenza virus; LPM, live poultry market; qRT-PCR, quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
†A positive poultry sample may detect AIV in the oropharyngeal samples, cloacal samples, or both by qRT-PCR.
‡Environmental swab specimens were collected within the same poultry stall at LPMs but may not be from the same cage where the chickens were sampled. Fecal droppings were collected from the ground or cages, drinking water was collected from the water troughs, and poultry feed was sampled from the surface of the bowls or feeders.
§A positive air sample may be positive for AIV by qRT-PCR in any of the 3 size fractions collected by a NIOSH sampler (11). Two to 6 NIOSH samplers were applied monthly to sample air at the retail markets.
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1These authors contributed equally to this article.
2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.