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Volume 26, Number 3—March 2020

Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China

Kit Ling Cheng1, Jie Wu1, Wei Ling Shen, Alvina Y.L. Wong, Qianfang Guo, Jianxiang Yu, Xue Zhuang, Wen Su, Tie Song, Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen2Comments to Author , and Eric H.Y. Lau2
Author affiliations: University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (K.L. Cheng, A.Y.L. Wong, W. Su, M. Peiris, H.-L. Yen, E.H.Y. Lau); Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong, China (J. Wu, W.L. Shen, Q. Guo, J. Yu, X. Zhuang, T. Song)

Main Article

Table 2

AIV detection rates from chicken and environmental samples collected at a retail LPM, Guangdong, China, December 2015–July 2018*

Type of samples No. samples Median monthly positive rate, % (95% CI)
H5 H7 H9
Poultry samples† 1,239 0.0 (0.0–2.5) 5.8 (0.0–15.0) 64.6 (55.0–67.5)
Oropharyngeal 1,239 0.0 (0.0–2.5) 5.8 (0.0–13.3) 60.0 (52.5–67.5)
0.0 (0.0–2.5)
0.0 (0.0–2.5)
20.0 (13.2–26.5)
Environmental samples 1,734 6.2 (0.0–11.8) 4.2 (1.6–22.0) 73.8 (60.0–79.4)
Poultry holding zone‡ 965 2.9 (0.0–6.3) 3.0 (0–20.0) 68.2 (56.0–75.9)
Fecal droppings 424 0.0 (0.0–7.7) 0.0 (0.0–11.1) 58.3 (50.0–66.7)
Drinking water 364 0.0 (0.0–8.3) 3.3 (0.0–15.4) 83.3 (66.7–100.0)
Poultry feed 177 0.0 (0.0–11.1) 0.0 (0.0–9.1) 50.0 (33.3–70.0)
Poultry slaughtering zone 457 2.2 (0.0–25.0) 6.1 (0.0–22.2) 78.6 (59.5–87.5)
Defeathering machine 250 0.0 (0.0–20.0) 0.0 (0.0–20.0) 86.2 (70.0–100.0)
Defeathering area 207 0.0 (0.0–25.0) 0.0 (0.0–12.5) 73.2 (50.0–87.5)
Poultry selling zone 194 27.9 (0.0–50.0) 0.0 (0.0–14.3) 91.2 (60.0–100.0)
Chopping board 141 33.0 (0.0–50.0) 0.0 (0.0–25.0) 100.0 (71.4–100.0)
Display table 53 0.0 (0.0–66.7) 0.0 (0.0–14.3) 92.9 (25.0–100.0)
Air§ 118 0.0 (0.0–25.0) 0.0 (0.0–16.7) 75.0 (50.0–100.0)

*AIV, avian influenza virus; LPM, live poultry market; qRT-PCR, quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
†A positive poultry sample may detect AIV in the oropharyngeal samples, cloacal samples, or both by qRT-PCR.
‡Environmental swab specimens were collected within the same poultry stall at LPMs but may not be from the same cage where the chickens were sampled. Fecal droppings were collected from the ground or cages, drinking water was collected from the water troughs, and poultry feed was sampled from the surface of the bowls or feeders.
§A positive air sample may be positive for AIV by qRT-PCR in any of the 3 size fractions collected by a NIOSH sampler (11). Two to 6 NIOSH samplers were applied monthly to sample air at the retail markets.

Main Article

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.

2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

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