Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001
THEME ISSUE
4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections
Introduction

Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospitals: Infection Control and Use of Antibiotics

Robert A. WeinsteinComments to Author 
Author affiliation: Cook County Hospital and Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ilinois, USA

Main Article

Figure 3

The dynamics of nosocomial resistance. Resistance iceberg floating in an epicenter (2).

Figure 3. The dynamics of nosocomial resistance. Resistance iceberg floating in an epicenter (2).

Main Article

References
  1. Sherris  JC. The epidemiology of drug resistance. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nosocomial Infections. Atlanta: Center for Disease Control; 1970. p. 50-60.
  2. Weinstein  RA, Kabins  SA. Strategies for prevention and control of multiple-drug resistant nosocomial infections. Am J Med. 1981;70:44954.PubMed
  3. Tenover  FC. Novel and emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens. Am J Med. 1991;91:76S81S. DOIPubMed
  4. Weinstein  RA. Epidemiology and control of nosocomial infections in adult intensive care units. Am J Med. 1991;91:179S84S. DOIPubMed
  5. Goldmann  DA, Weinstein  RA, Wenzel  RP, Tablan  OC, Duma  RJ, Gaynes  RP, Strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals. A challenge to hospital leadership. JAMA. 1996;275:23440. DOIPubMed
  6. Wester  CW, Durairaj  L, Schwartz  D, Husain  S, Martinez  E, Evans  AT. Antibiotic resistance: who cares? Physician perceptions of antibiotic resistance among inpatients: its magnitude, causes, and potential solutions [abstract #529]. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 1999 Nov 18-21, Philadelphia. Alexandria (VA): Infectious Diseases Society of America; 1999.
  7. Vernon  MO, Trick  WB, Schwartz  D, Welbel  SF, Wisniewski  M, Fornek  ML, Marked variation in perceptions of antimicrobial resistance (AR) and infection control (IC) practices among healthcare workers (HCWs). In: Proceedings of APIC 2000, June 18-22, Minneapolis, MN. St. Louis: Mosby, Inc.; 2000.
  8. Larson  E. Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches? Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:128794. DOIPubMed
  9. Pittet  D, Mourouga  P, Perneger  TV. Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:12630.PubMed
  10. Boyce  J. Antiseptic technology: access, affordability, and acceptance. [this issue)]. Emerg Infect Dis. In press.PubMed
  11. Boyce  JM, Kelliher  S, Vallande  N, Korber  S, Denicola  G, Fedo  J. Hand disinfection with an alcoholic gel causes less skin irritation and dryness of nurses' hands than soap and water handwashing.[abstract #78]. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Meeting, April 18-20, 1999, San Francisco, CA. Thorofare (NJ): Slack Inc.; 1999.
  12. Austin  DJ, Bonten  MJM, Weinstein  RA, Slaughter  S, Anderson  RM. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive-care hospital settings: transmission dynamics, persistence and the impact of infection control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:690813. DOIPubMed
  13. Bonten  JM, Slaughter  S, Ambergen  A, Hayden  MK, Van Voorhis  J, Nathan  C, The role of "colonization pressure" in the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:112732. DOIPubMed
  14. Weinstein  RA, Nathan  C, Gruensfelder  R, Kabins  SA. Endemic aminoglycoside resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Epidemiology and mechanisms. J Infect Dis. 1980;141:33845. DOIPubMed
  15. Weinstein  RA, Hayden  MK. Multiply drug-resistant pathogens: epidemiology & control. In: Bennett JV, Brachman PS, editors. Hospital infections. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1998. p. 215-36.
  16. Johnson  S, Gerding  DN, Olson  MN, Weiler  MD, Hughes  RA, Clabots  CR, Prospective, controlled study of vinyl glove use to interrupt Clostridium difficile nosocomial transmission. Am J Med. 1990;88:13740. DOIPubMed
  17. Badri  SM, Sahgal  NB, Tenorio  AR, Law  K, Hota  B, Matushek  M, Effectiveness of gloves in preventing the transmission of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) during patient care activities. In: Program of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, November 11-14, 1998, Denver, CO, Abstract #599.
  18. Beezhold  D, Slaughter  S, Hayden  MK, Matushek  M, Nathan  C, Trenholme  GM, Skin colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci among hospitalized patients with bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:7046. DOIPubMed
  19. Bonten  MJM, Hayden  MK, Nathan  C, Van Voorhis  J, Matushek  M, Slaughter  S, Epidemiology of colonization of patients and environment with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1996;348:16159. DOIPubMed
  20. Olsen  RJ, Lynch  P, Coyle  MB, Cummings  J, Bokete  T, Stamm  WE. Examination gloves as barriers amination in clinical practice. JAMA. 1993;270:3503. DOIPubMed
  21. Trick  WE, DeMarais  PL, Jarvis  WR, Tomaska  W, Ohlrich  S, Hageman  J, Comparison of universal gloving to contact isolation precautions to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria in a long-term care facility. In: Proceedings of the 4th Decennial International Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, March 5-9, 2000. Thorofare (NJ): Slack, Inc.; 2000.
  22. Slaughter  S, Hayden  MK, Nathan  C, Hu  TC, Rice  T, Van Voorhis  J, A comparison of the effect of universal use of gloves and gowns with that of glove use alone on acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a medical intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:44856.PubMed
  23. Boyce  JM, Opal  SM, Chow  JW, Zervos  MJ, Potter-Bynoe  G, Sherman  CB, Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:114853.PubMed
  24. Durbin  WA, Lapidas  B, Goldmann  DA. Improved antibiotic usage following introduction of a novel prescription system. JAMA. 1981;246:1796800. DOIPubMed
  25. Kortas  K, Segreti  J, Donnelly  A, Pierpaoli  P, Trenholme  G, Levin  S. An anti-infective review and monitoring program. Pharmacol Ther. 1993; 2916.PubMed
  26. Woodward  RS, Medoff  G, Smith  MD, Gray  JL. Antibiotic cost savings from formulary restrictions and physician monitoring in a medical-school-affiliated hospital. Am J Med. 1987;83:81723. DOIPubMed
  27. White  AC, Atmar  RL, Wilson  J, Cate  TR, Stager  CE, Greenberg  SB. Effects of requiring prior authorization for selected antimicrobials: expenditures, susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:2309. DOIPubMed
  28. Schiff  GD, Rucker  TD. Computerized prescribing: building the electronic infrastructure for better medication usage. JAMA. 1998;279:10249. DOIPubMed
  29. Evans  RS, Pestotnik  SL, Classen  DC, Clemmer  TP, Weaver  LK, Orme  JF, A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other anti-infective agents. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:2328. DOIPubMed
  30. John  JF. Antibiotic cycling: is it ready for prime time? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:911. DOIPubMed
  31. Gerding  DN. Antimicrobial cycling: lessons learned from the aminoglycoside experience. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:S127. DOIPubMed
  32. Rahal  JJ, Urban  C, Horn  D, Freeman  K, Segal-Maurer  S, Maurer  J, Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella. JAMA. 1998;280:12337. DOIPubMed
  33. Kollef  MH, Vlasnik  J, Sharpless  L, Pasque  C, Murphy  D, Fraser  V. Scheduled change of antibiotic classes: a strategy to decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156:10408.PubMed
  34. Quale  J, Landman  D, Saurina  G, Atwood  E, DiTore  V, Patel  K. Manipulation of a hospital antimicrobial formulary to control an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23:10205. DOIPubMed
  35. Landman  D, Chockalingam  M, Quale  JM. Reduction in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae following changes in a hospital antibiotic formulary. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:10626. DOIPubMed
  36. Wiener  J, Quinn  JP, Bradford  PA, Goering  RV, Nathan  C, Bush  K, Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA. 1999;281:51723. DOIPubMed
  37. Bonhoeffer  S, Lipsitch  M, Levin  BR. Evaluating treatment protocols to prevent antibiotic resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:1210611. DOIPubMed
  38. Tenover  FC, Arbeit  RD, Goering  RV, Murray  BE, Persing  DH, Pfaller  MA, How to select and interpret molecular strain typing methods for epidemiological studies of bacterial infections: a review for healthcare epidemiologists. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18:42639. DOIPubMed
  39. Matushek  MG, Bonten  MJ, Hayden  MK. Rapid preparation of bacterial DNA for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:2598600.PubMed

Main Article

Page created: May 10, 2011
Page updated: May 10, 2011
Page reviewed: May 10, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external