Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001
4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections
Prevention is Primary
Infection Control in Home Care
|Site of infection||Clinical data||Laboratory data|
|Catheter-related UTIb||Change in characteristics of urine||Elevated serum leukocytes|
|Fever||Evidence of UTI in urinalysis|
|Pain||Evidence of leukocytes in urine dipstick test|
|Positive urine culture (>105 CFU of a single organism per mL urine)|
|Postoperative pneumonia||Change in character of sputum||Elevated serum leukocytes|
|Decreased breath sounds||Sputum Gram-stained smear with|
|Increase in rales and rhonchi||evidence of respiratory infection|
|Fever||Positive sputum culture|
|Shortness of breath||Positive chest X ray|
|Catheter-related bloodstream infection||Fever with chills and rigors||Elevated serum leukocytes|
|Redness, tenderness, or pain at insertion site||Positive blood culture|
|Purulent drainage at site||Positive catheter culture (after catheter removal)|
|Skin and soft tissue infection||Pain, swelling, tenderness at site||Gram-stain smear with leukocytes and organisms|
|Inflammation and warmth||Positive culture|
|Purulent drainage||Elevated serum leukocytes|
|Endometritis in postpartum patients||Uterine tenderness and abdominal pain||Positive Gram-stain smear of lochia|
|Purulent vaginal drainage (lochia)||Positive culture of lochia|
|Foul-smelling lochia||Remarkably elevated serum leukocytes|
aSource: Rhinehart E, Friedman M. Infection control in home care. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishing, Inc.;1999 (22). bUTI = urinary tract infection.
- Basic statistics about home care. Washington: National Association for Home Care; 1999.
- White MC, Ragland KE. Surveillance of intravenous catheter-related infections among home care clients. Am J Infect Control. 1994;22:213–35.
- White MC, Ragland KE. Urinary catheter-related infections among home care patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1995;22:286–90.
- Rosenheimer L. Establishing a surveillance system for infections acquired in home healthcare. Home Healthc Nurse. 1995;13:20–6.
- Zimay DL. Standardizing the definition and measurement of catheter-related infection in home care: a proposed outcome measurement system. J Med Syst. 1999;23:189–99.
- Luehm D, Fauerbach L. Task force studies infection rates, surgical site management and Foley catheter infections. Caring. 1999;18:30–4.
- Woomer N, Long C, Anderson CO, Greenberg EA. Benchmarking in home health care: a collaborative approach. Caring. 1999;18:22–8.
- Rosenheimer L, Embry FC, Sanford J, Silver SR. Infection surveillance in home care: device-related incidence rates. Am J Infect Control. 1998;26:359–63.
- Goldberg P, Lange M. Development of an infection surveillance project for home healthcare. Home Care Magazine 1997;1:1,4-9.
- Rhinehart E. Developing an infection surveillance system. Caring. 1996;15:26–8, 31–2.
- Danzig L, Short L, Collins K, Mahoney M, Sepe S, Bland L, Bloodstream infections associated with a needleless intravenous infustion system in patients receiving home infusion therapy. JAMA. 1995;23:1862–4.
- Kellerman S, Shay D, Howard J, Goes C, Feusner J, Rosenberg J, Bloodstream infections in home infusion patients: the influence of race and needleless intravascular access devices. J Pediatr. 1996;129:711–7.
- Tokars JI, Cookson ST, McArthur MA, Boyer CL, McGeer AJ, Jarvis WR. Prospective evaluation of risk factors for bloodstream infections in patients receiving home infusion therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:340–7.
- Do AN, Ray BJ, Banerjee SN, Illian AF, Barnett BJ, Pham MH, Bloodstream infection associated with needleless device use and the importance of infection-control practices in the home health care setting. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:442–8.
- Friedman M, Rhinehart E. Putting infection control principles into practice in home care. Nurs Clin North Am. 1999;34:463–82.
- Friedman M. Preventing and controlling the transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in the home care setting. Caring. 1999;18:6–11.
- Davis PL, Madigan EA. Evidence-based practice and the home care nurse's bag. Home Healthc Nurse. 1999;17:295–9.
- Hanchett M. Implementing standard precautions in home care. Home Care Manag. 1998;2:16–20.
- Friedman M. Designing an infection control to meet JCAHO standards. Caring. 1996;15:18–25.
- Smith PW, Roccaforte JS. Epidemiology and prevention of infections in home healthcare. In: Mayhall CG, editor. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999. p. 1483-8.
- Garofalo K. Home health. In: Olmsted R, editor. APIC infection control and applied epidemiology. St. Louis: Mosby; 1996. p. 90-1-90-11.
- Rhinehart E, Friedman M. Infection control in home care. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishers, Inc.; 1999.
- Garner J, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan T, Hughes J. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:28–40.
- Emori TG, Culver D, Horan T. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS): description of surveillance methods. Am J Infect Control. 1991;19:19–35.
- Home Care Membership Section APIC. Draft definitions for surveillance of infections in home health care. Am J Infect Control. 2000;28:449–53.
- Lee T, Baker O, Lee J, Scheckler W, Steele L, Laxton C. Recommended practices for surveillance. Am J Infect Control. 1998;26:277–88.
- Pearson M. Guideline for prevention of intravascular device-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996;17:438–73.
- Wong ES. Guideline for prevention of urinary tract infection. Am J Infect Control. 1983;11:28–31.
- Garner J. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 1996;17:53–80.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Am J Infect Control. 1995;23:87–94.
Page created: May 10, 2011
Page updated: May 10, 2011
Page reviewed: May 10, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.