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Volume 8, Number 2—February 2002

An Outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997-98

Christopher W. Woods*Comments to Author , Adam M. Karpati*, Thomas Grein†, Noel McCarthy†, Peter Gaturuku§, Eric Muchiri§, Lee Dunster¶, Alden Henderson*, Ali S. Khan*, Robert Swanepoel#, Isabelle Bonmarin, Louise Martin**, Philip Mann††, Bonnie L. Smoak‡‡, Michael Ryan**, Thomas G. Ksiazek*, Ray R. Arthur**, Andre Ndikuyeze**, Naphtali N. Agata**, Clarence J Peters*, and the World Health Organization Hemorrhagic Fever Task Force
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Union, Saint-Maurice, France; EPICENTRE, Paris, France; §Kenya Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; ¶Kenyan Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; #National Institutes of Virology (NIV), Sandringham, South Africa; **World Health Organization, African Regional Office, Harare, Zimbabwe; ††Médècins Sans Frontieres, Paris, France; ‡‡United States Army Medical Research Unit, Kenya; §§International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, Switzerland; ¶¶Médècins du Monde, Paris, France; ##Africa Medical Research Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya

Main Article

Table 3

Exposures during previous 90 days, Rift Valley fever (RVF) cross-sectional survey, Garissa District, Kenya, 1997-98

Acutea infection (%)
n = 31No infection (%)
n = 140Relative risk95% CI
Animal exposures
Sheltered livestock in home after flood27 (87)63 (45)5.32.3-12.6
Killed an animal20 (64)47 (34)2.41.3-4.3
Butchered an animal14 (45)33 (24)2.01.1-3.6
Skinned an animal20 (65)38 (27)2.41.6-3.5
Cooked with meat20 (65)48 (34)2.31.1-4.9
Milked animals25 (80)59 (42)3.81.9-7.7
Drank raw animal milk30 (97)89 (64)8.62.0-36.0
Care of animal during birth21 (68)46 (33)2.61.4-4.9
Disposal of aborted fetus19 (61)36 (26)2.81.5-5.5
Sheep contactb25 (81)48 (29)6.32.9-14.0
Goat contactb28 (90)91 (65)3.11.6-6.4
Cow contactb20 (65)49 (35)2.41.3-4.5
Camel contactb5 (16)17 (12)1.30.5-3.8
Non-animal exposures
Home flooded since November 199725 (81)103 (73)1.30.8-2.1
Ill family member7 (23)20 (14)1.60.8-3.1
Contact with a dead human body6 (21)10 (7)2.21.0-4.6
Use mosquito nets19 (61)102 (73)0.70.3-1.4

aAnti-Rift valley fever virus immunoglobulin M antibody-positive.

bContact includes herding, cooking, slaughtering or other body fluid contact (except consumption), drinking raw milk.

Main Article

1 Members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Hemorrhagic Fever Task Force, in addition to the listed authors, included Paul Arguin, David Ashford, Julianna Grant, Stuart Nichol, and Brian Plikaytis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Marta Valenciano, European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training, European Union; James N. Mwanzia, Philip Kangethe, Stephen A. Mileso, and Quinto Maloba, Kenya Ministry of Health; Manuela Dunster, Kenyan Medical Research Institute; Alan Kemp and Koos Coetzer, National Institutes of Virology, Sandringham, South Africa; Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Philip M. Mothoka, Gregory C. Gottlieb, John H. Bierke, and Glyn Davies, WHO, Geneva and African Regional Office; Saade Abdallah, International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent; Elizabeth Nicore and Olivier West, Médècins du Monde; and Christine Grace Adhiambo, Africa Medical Research Foundation.

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