DNA Vaccine for West Nile Virus Infection in Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus)
Michael J. Turell*
, Michel L. Bunning†‡1
, George V. Ludwig*, Brian Ortman†, Jeff Chang‡, Tully Speaker§, Andrew Spielman¶, Robert McLean#, Nicholas Komar‡, Robert Gates‡, Tracey McNamara**, Terry Creekmore††, Linda Farley‡‡, and Carl J. Mitchell‡
Author affiliations: *U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA; †U.S. Air Force, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; §Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; ¶Harvard School of Public Health and the Center for International Development at Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; #U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; **Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA; ††Wyoming Department of Health, Laramie, Wyoming, USA; ‡‡American Bird Conservancy, Washington, D.C., USA; 1Drs. Turell and Bunning are co-lead authors of this article.
Viremia levels in fish crows that survived or died after challenge with virulent West Nile virus
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