Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 21, Number 11—November 2015
Perspective

Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention

Thomas R. FriedenComments to Author  and Inger K. Damon
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Figure 3

Comparison of estimated weekly Ebola virus disease case rate for Liberia with intervention with actual weekly case rates for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The September 2014 modeled projection curve was based on Figures 9 and 10 in Meltzer et al (22), by using model predictions calculated assuming that interventions started on September 24, 2014. Liberia, week 1 begins May 4, 2014; Sierra Leone, week 1 begins May 25, 2014. The model projected the incidence that would occur if the proportion of Ebola

Figure 3. Comparison of estimated weekly Ebola virus disease case rate for Liberia with intervention with actual weekly case rates for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The September 2014 modeled projection curve was based on Figures 9 and 10 in Meltzer et al. (22), by using model predictions calculated assuming that interventions started on September 24, 2014. Liberia, week 1 begins May 4, 2014; Sierra Leone, week 1 begins May 25, 2014. The model projected the incidence that would occur if the proportion of Ebola patients who were hospitalized was 25% at week 22, increased to 40% at week 26, and increased again to 70% at week 30, while the proportion in effective home isolation remained constant at 10%. The similarity in the increase and decrease in the actual epidemic curves in both Sierra Leone and Liberia closely match the model after taking into account differences in start dates and population sizes between the 2 countries, implying that the proportion of cases effectively isolated in both countries followed a similar time course as the model.

Main Article

References
  1. Ogden  HG. CDC and the smallpox crusade. The global health chronicles. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control; 1987 [cited 2015 Jul 30]. http://www.globalhealthchronicles.org/items/show/5374
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Emergency Operations Center (EOC) [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/eoc.htm
  3. Shuaib  F, Gunnala  R, Musa  EO, Mahoney  FJ, Oguntimehin  O, Nguku  PM, Ebola virus disease outbreak—Nigeria, July–September 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:86772 .PubMed
  4. Mirkovic  K, Thwing  J, Diack  PA. Importation and containment of Ebola virus disease—Senegal, August–September 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:8734 .PubMed
  5. World Health Organization. Government of Mali and WHO announce the end of the Ebola outbreak in Mali [cited 2015 Jul 16]. http://www.afro.who.int/en/media-centre/pressreleases/item/7293-government-of-mali-and-who-announce-the-end-of-the-ebola-outbreak-in-mali.html
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The road to zero: CDC’s response to the West African Ebola epidemic [cited 2015 Jul 16]. http://www.cdc.gov/about/pdf/ebola/ebola-photobook-070915.pdf
  7. Mohr  EL, McMullan  LK, Lo  MK, Spengler  JR, Bergeron  É, Albariño  CG, Inhibitors of cellular kinases with broad-spectrum antiviral activity for hemorrhagic fever viruses. Antiviral Res. 2015;120:407 and and. DOIPubMed
  8. Kargbo  MK. Ebola prevention vaccine evaluation in Sierra Leone [presentation] [cited 2015 May 29]. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2015/S4.3_Kargbo_Sierra_Leone_CDC_Collaboration.pdf
  9. ClinicalTrials.gov. STRIVE (Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine Against Ebola) [cited 2015 May 28]. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02378753
  10. CDC Foundation [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdcfoundation.org
  11. Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. 280d-11, Sec 399F (1992).
  12. Nossiter  A. Outracing vows of aid, Ebola swamps a city unprepared for it. New York Times. 2014 Oct 2; Sect A:1.
  13. World Health Organization. Ebola response in action [cited 2015 Jul 30]. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/dashboard-en.pdf?ua=1
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Improving Ebola diagnostics: field lab in Bo, Sierra Leone [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dhcpp/featured_stories/improving-ebola-diagnostics.html
  15. Kateh  F, Nagbe  T, Kieta  A, Barskey  A, Gasasira  AN, Driscoll  A, Rapid response to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas—Liberia, July–November 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:18892 .PubMed
  16. Digital  IIP; US Department of State. White House facts on progress in Ebola response in U.S., abroad [cited 2015 May 28]. http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2015/02/20150211313532.html
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preparing healthcare workers to work in Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Africa [cited 2015 Jul 16]. http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp/safety-training-course/index.html
  18. Nielsen  CF, Kidd  S, Sillah  AR, Davis  E, Mermin  J, Kilmarx  PH, Improving burial practices and cemetery management during an Ebola virus disease epidemic—Sierra Leone, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:207 .PubMed
  19. Sharma  A, Heijenberg  N, Peter  C, Bolongei  J, Reeder  B, Alpha  T, Evidence for a decrease in transmission of Ebola virus—Lofa County, Liberia, June 8–November 1, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:106771 .PubMed
  20. UNICEF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization. Key messages for safe school operations in countries with outbreaks of Ebola. February 2015 [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/ebola-safe-school-messages2015.pdf
  21. Salaam-Blyther T. U.S. and international health responses to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service; 2014 [cited 2015 May 28]. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R43697.pdf
  22. Meltzer  MI, Atkins  CY, Santibanez  S, Knust  B, Petersen  BW, Ervin  ED, Estimating the future number of cases in the Ebola epidemic—Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014;63(Suppl 3):114 .PubMed
  23. African Union. African Union support to Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Fact sheet: African Union response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, as of 1/26/2015 [cited 2015 May 28]. http://pages.au.int/sites/default/files/FACT%20SHEET_as%20of%2026%20Jan%202015.pdf
  24. The White House. Fact sheet: update on the Ebola response [cited 2015 May 28]. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/12/02/fact-sheet-update-ebola-response
  25. US Agency for International Development. West Africa—Ebola outbreak—fact sheet #6 [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.usaid.gov/ebola/fy15/fs06
  26. World Health Organization. Ebola situation report—21 January 2015 [cited 2015 Aug 19]. http://apps.who.int/ebola/en/status-outbreak/situation-reports/ebola-situation-report-21-january-2015
  27. ClinicalTrials.gov. Putative investigational therapeutics in the treatment of patients with known Ebola infection [cited 2015 Jul 30]. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02363322
  28. ClinicalTrials.gov. Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia (PREVAIL) [cited 2015 May 28]. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02344407
  29. Incident Management System Ebola Epidemiology Team. CDC; Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus; World Health Organization; CDC Guinea Response Team; Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; CDC Liberia Response Team; et al. Update: Ebola virus disease epidemic—West Africa, January 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:10910 .PubMed
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergency preparedness and response guidelines for evaluation of US patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease [cited 2015 May 28]. http://emergency.cdc.gov/HAN/han00364.asp
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance for environmental infection control in hospitals for Ebola virus [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/cleaning/hospitals.html
  32. Chevalier  MS, Chung  W, Smith  J, Weil  LM, Hughes  SM, Joyner  SN, Ebola virus disease cluster in the United States—Dallas County, Texas, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:10878 .PubMed
  33. Regan  JJ, Jungerman  R, Montiel  SH, Newsome  K, Objio  T, Washburn  F, Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:636 .PubMed
  34. Pellerin  C. Medical Research Institute develops Ebola diagnostics. DoD News. 2014 Oct 27 [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123498
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Protecting America from Ebola. CDC’s Ebola Response Team [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/ebola-response-team.pdf
  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Enhanced Ebola screening to start at five U.S. airports and new tracking program for all people entering U.S. from Ebola-affected countries [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p1008-ebola-screening.html
  37. Karwowski  MP, Meites  E, Fullerton  KE, Ströher  U, Lowe  L, Rayfield  M, Clinical inquiries regarding Ebola virus disease received by CDC—United States, July 9–November 15, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:11759 .PubMed
  38. NetHope Global Broadband and Innovations Alliance. Information and communications technology response to the Liberia Ebola crisis. Desk review and recommendations for private sector engagement [cited 2015 May 28]. http://www.medbox.org/information-and-communications-technology-response-to-the-liberia-ebola-crisis/download.pdf
  39. Making a difference. The global Ebola response: outlook 2015 [cited 2015 May 28]. https://ebolaresponse.un.org/sites/default/files/ebolaoutlook.pdf
  40. Shoemaker  T, MacNeil  A, Balinandi  S, Campbell  S, Wamala  JF, McMullan  LK, Reemerging Sudan Ebola virus disease in Uganda, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:14803. DOIPubMed
  41. Frieden  TR, Tappero  JW, Dowell  SF, Hien  NT, Guillaume  FD, Aceng  JR. Safer countries through global health security. Lancet. 2014;383:7646 . DOIPubMed
  42. Heymann  DL, Chen  L, Takemi  K, Fidler  DP, Tappero  JW, Thomas  MJ, Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic. Lancet. 2015;385:1884901. DOIPubMed
  43. World Health Organization. Report of the Ebola interim assessment panel. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 [cited 2015 Jul 16]. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/ebola/report-by-panel.pdf
  44. Mackenzie  JS, Drury  P, Arthur  RR, Ryan  MJ, Grein  T, Slattery  R, The global outbreak alert and response network. Glob Public Health. 2014;9:102339. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: October 16, 2015
Page updated: October 16, 2015
Page reviewed: October 16, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external