Figure 2. A hypothetical model developed to visualize the role of domestic animals and wildlife in the natural cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV). The model illustrates the dynamics of VACV circulation in urban and wild areas of Brazil. In urban areas, wild coatis could promote the transmission of VACV between domestic animals or humans because they are in direct contact with domestic dogs and circulate among urban residences. Domestic dogs could also promote the transmission of VACV to humans because of direct contact or possibly indirect contact thought contaminated feces. In the wild environment, coatis can interact with other mammals such as wild rodents, which are believed to be VACV reservoirs, and acquire the infection (this potential interaction is still under investigation).