Volume 26, Number 11—November 2020
Validated Methods for Removing Select Agent Samples from Biosafety Level 3 Laboratories
|Agent (reference)||Source of samples, bacterial load
|Lung, per g||Cell pellet, per mL BAL||Blood, per mL||Overnight culture, per mL|
|Bacillus anthracis (5,6)||<108||Not tested||<104||108|
|Yersinia pestis (7)||<1010||Not tested||<106||109|
|Burkholderia mallei (8–11)||<109†||Not tested||<104||109|
|Burkholderia pesudomallei (11,12)||<108||105‡||<105||109|
|Francisella tularensis (13)||107||Not tested||<105||109|
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories, 5th ed. Washington (DC): The Department; 2009.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Guidance on the Inactivation or Removal of Select Agents or Toxins for Future Use. 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 4]. https://www.selectagents.gov/irg-intro.html
- US Government Accountability Office. Actions Needed to Improve Management of DOD's Biosafety and Biosecurity Program. 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 4]. https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-18-422
- Leighton TJ, Doi RH. The stability of messenger ribonucleic acid during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:3189–95.
- Heine HS, Shadomy SV, Boyer AE, Chuvala L, Riggins R, Kesterson A, et al. Evaluation of combination drug therapy for treatment of antibiotic-resistant inhalation anthrax in a murine model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61:e00788–17.
- Heine HS, Bassett J, Miller L, Hartings JM, Ivins BE, Pitt ML, et al. Determination of antibiotic efficacy against Bacillus anthracis in a mouse aerosol challenge model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1373–9.
- Heine HS, Chuvala L, Riggins R, Hurteau G, Cirz R, Cass R, et al. Natural history of Yersinia pestis pneumonia in aerosol-challenged BALB/c mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2010–5.
- Judy BM, Whitlock GC, Torres AG, Estes DM. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei to Ceftazidime and Levofloxacin. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:88.
- Mott TM, Johnston RK, Vijayakumar S, Estes DM, Motamedi M, Sbrana E, et al. Monitoring therapeutic treatments against Burkholderia infections using imaging techniques. Pathogens. 2013;2:383–401.
- Moustafa DA, Scarff JM, Garcia PP, Cassidy SKB, DiGiandomenico A, Waag DM, et al. Recombinant salmonella expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O antigen provides protection in a murine model of melioidosis and glanders. PLoS One. 2015;10:
- Lafontaine ER, Zimmerman SM, Shaffer TL, Michel F, Gao X, Hogan RJ. Use of a safe, reproducible, and rapid aerosol delivery method to study infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8:
- Tan GG, Liu Y, Sivalingam SP, Sim S-H, Wang D, Paucod J-C, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei aerosol infection results in differential inflammatory responses in BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:508–15.
- Heine HS, Chuvala L, Riggins R, Cirz R, Cass R, Louie A, et al. Natural history of Francisella tularensis in aerosol-challenged BALB/c mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:1834–40.
- Dauphin LA, Bowen MD. A simple method for the rapid removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from DNA preparations. J Microbiol Methods. 2009;76:212–4.
Page created: August 05, 2020
Page updated: October 17, 2020
Page reviewed: October 17, 2020
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.