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Volume 26, Number 8—August 2020

Association of Dengue Virus and Leptospira Co-Infections with Malaria Severity

Rajendra Mandage1, Charandeep Kaur1, Atreyi Pramanik1, Vinod Kumar2, Parul Kodan, Adarsh Singh, Sounak Saha, Shivam Pandey, Naveet Wig, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Manish Soneja, and Pragyan AcharyaComments to Author 
Author affiliations: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India (R. Mandage, C. Kaur, A. Pramanik, P. Kodan, S. Pandey, N. Wig, R.M. Pandey, M. Soneja, P. Acharya); Nehru Shatabdi Chikitsalaya, Singrauli, India (V. Kumar); Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India (A. Singh, S. Saha)

Main Article

Table 3

Frequency of co-infections and mixed infections in patients with severe and mild malaria, India, July 2017–September 2018*

No. malaria cases
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Severe, n = 33
Mild, n = 33
p value
DENV <0.08
Neg for DENV 14 12 Referent Referent
Pos for DENV-4 6 14 0.34 (0.1–1.2) 0.3 (0.4–5.0)
Pos for other DENV serotypes: 1, 3, 1+3, 4+3

1.6 (0.5–2.5)
1.4 (0.4–4.9)
Leptospira <0.5
Absent 26 29

1.9 (0.5–7.4)
1.6 (0.4–6.8)
Orientia tsutsugamushi <0.5
Absent 30 31 Referent Referent

1.6 (0.2–9.9)
1.1 (0.1–7.8)
Malaria parasite types <0.1
Plasmodium mixed infections 17 10 Referent Referent
P. vivax/P. knowlesi monoinfection 16 23 2.4 (0.9–6.7) 2.5 (0.9–7.2)

*Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the strength of association of various co-infections and mixed malaria infections with malaria severity. DENV, dengue virus.; neg, negative; pos, positive; OR, odds ratio.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

2Work was conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Page created: June 11, 2020
Page updated: July 17, 2020
Page reviewed: July 17, 2020
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