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Volume 27, Number 2—February 2021

Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects, Costa Rica, 2016–2018

Adriana Benavides-LaraComments to Author , María de la Paz Barboza-Arguello, Mauricio González-Elizondo, Marcela Hernández-deMezerville, Helena Brenes-Chacón, Melissa Ramírez-Rojas, Catalina Ramírez-Hernández, Nereida Arjona-Ortegón, Shana Godfred-Cato, Diana Valencia, Cynthia A. Moore, and Alejandra Soriano-Fallas
Author affiliations: Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud, Cartago, Costa Rica (A. Benavides-Lara, M.P. Barboza-Arguello, M. González-Elizondo); Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica (M. Hernández-deMezerville, H. Brenes-Chacón, C. Ramírez-Hernández, N. Arjona Ortegón, A. Soriano-Fallas); Ministry of Health, San José (M. Ramírez-Rojas); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S. Godfred-Cato, D. Valencia, C.A. Moore)

Main Article

Table 1

Distribution of 204 excluded cases according to exclusion criteria for Zika virus–associated birth defects, Costa Rica, March 2016–March 2018*

Category, cause
No. cases
Chromosome anomaly, n = 11
Ring chromosome 4. Possible Wolf-Hirschhorn 1
Mosaic 47,XYY/46,XY 1
Trisomy 13 5
Trisomy 18 1
Trisomy 21
STORCH, n = 13
Congenital syphilis 2
Congenital toxoplasmosis 6
Rubella 0
Congenital cytomegalovirus 4
Congenital hepatitis B
Birth defects (isolated, multiple nonsyndromic), n = 38
Anencephaly and rachischisis 3
Congenital heart defect 7
Craniosynostosis 1
Gastroschisis 2
Hydranencephaly and hydrocephaly 4
Microcephaly, constitutional or familial 11
Multiple malformations of unknown cause 8
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum 1
Cleft palate
Diseases, maternal conditions, or problems at delivery, n = 27
Maternal alcoholism or drug use 7
Hypoxic encephalopathy or acute fetal distress at birth 5
Maternal ossifying myositis 1
Maternal hyperthyroidism 1
Pregnancy-induced hypertension with or without pre-eclampsia 9
Maternal chronic arterial hypertension 2
Maternal tuberculosis 1
Maternal epilepsy
Other genetic diseases or other specific syndromes of the infant, n = 16
Crouzon syndrome 1
Septo-optic dysplasia 1
Holoprosencephaly 8
Cystic fibrosis 1
Roberts syndrome (possible) 1
Meckel Gruber syndrome (possible) 1
Aicardi Goutières syndrome (probable) 1
Russel Silver syndrome 1
Familial syndrome not specified
Newborn with microcephaly with subsequent normal head circumference and no other findings, n = 99†
Term newborns‡ 86
Premature newborns
Total excluded cases 204

*STORCH, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B. Note that Costa Rica does not include hepatitis B in its standard evaluations.
†Newborns that do not belong to any other category of causes. 
‡Includes 56 with and 30 without intrauterine growth restriction.

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Page created: December 07, 2020
Page updated: January 21, 2021
Page reviewed: January 21, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.