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Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006

Genomic Signatures of Human versus Avian Influenza A Viruses

Guang-Wu Chen*1, Shih-Cheng Chang*1, Chee-Keng Mok*, Yu-Luan Lo*, Yu-Nong Kung*, Ji-Hung Huang*, Yun-Han Shih*, Ji-Yi Wang*, Chiayn Chiang*, Chi-Jene Chen*, and Shin-Ru Shih*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China

Main Article

Table A3

Genome-scanning for 228 amino acid 'signatures' (those ones shown in bold face, either 'Distinct' or 'Nearly Distinct') out of 4,591 aligned amino acid positions. Con: consensus residue; Ent: entropy value; Same: all avian and human strains conserve to the same residue; Nearly Identical: both avian and human strains have entropy values less negative than -0.4, and have the same residue; Distinct: both avian and human strains contain zero entropy yet conserve to the different residue; Nearly Distinct: both avian and human strains contain an entropy value less negative than -0.4, and conserve to different residue. The last column shows positions based on PR8. Only HA and NA have different numberings comparing with the first column, due to excessive shifting of amino residues from HA and NA genetic diversity. Full table available at

Scanning for amino acid 'signatures' for influenza A virus PB2 protein
Pos Avian
Comments PR8
Con Ent Residues Con Ent Residues
1 M -0.500 M(76),-(19), M -0.055 M(303),-(3),
2 E -0.293 E(88),K(1),-(6), E -0.061 E(303),V(1),-(2), Nearly Identical
3 R -0.175 R(91),-(4), R -0.022 R(305),T(1), Nearly Identical
4 I -0.140 I(92),-(3), I -0.022 I(305),L(1), Nearly Identical
5 K -0.140 K(92),-(3), K -0.039 R(2),K(304), Nearly Identical
6 E -0.140 E(92),-(3), E 0.000 E(306), Nearly Identical
7 L -0.160 L(92),F(1),-(2), L 0.000 L(306), Nearly Identical
8 R -0.160 R(92),W(1),-(2), R 0.000 R(306), Nearly Identical
9 D -0.521 N(1),D(83),E(7),Y(2),-(2), N -0.619 N(227),D(1),S(2),T(76),
10 L -0.160 I(1),L(92),-(2), L -0.022 I(1),L(305), Nearly Identical
11 M -0.117 I(1),M(93),-(1), M 0.000 M(306), Nearly Identical
12 S 0.000 S(95), S -0.022 L(1),S(305), Nearly Identical
13 Q 0.000 Q(95), Q 0.000 Q(306), Same
14 S 0.000 S(95), S -0.022 F(1),S(305), Nearly Identical
15 R 0.000 R(95), R 0.000 R(306), Same
16 T -0.058 S(1),T(94), T 0.000 T(306), Nearly Identical
17 R 0.000 R(95), R 0.000 R(306), Same
18 E 0.000 E(95), E 0.000 E(306), Same
19 I 0.000 I(95), I 0.000 I(306), Same
20 L 0.000 L(95), L -0.022 L(305),V(1), Nearly Identical
21 T 0.000 T(95), T 0.000 T(306), Same
22 K 0.000 K(95), K -0.022 N(1),K(305), Nearly Identical
23 T 0.000 T(95), T -0.022 P(1),T(305), Nearly Identical
24 T 0.000 T(95), T 0.000 T(306), Same
25 V 0.000 V(95), V 0.000 V(306), Same

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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