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Volume 20, Number 7—July 2014

New Viruses in Idiopathic Human Diarrhea Cases, the Netherlands

Saskia L. SmitsComments to Author , Claudia M.E. Schapendonk, Janko van Beek, Harry Vennema, Anita C. Schürch, Debby Schipper, Rogier Bodewes, Bart L. Haagmans, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, and Marion P. Koopmans
Author affiliations: Viroclinics Biosciences, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (S.L. Smits, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (S.L. Smits, C.M.E. Schapendonk, J. van Beek, A.C. Schürch, D. Schipper, R. Bodewes, B.L. Haagmans, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, M.P. Koopmans); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (J. van Beek, H. Vennema, M.P. Koopmans)

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Detection of mammalian viral sequences in 27 patients with diarrhea by using viral metagenomics, the Netherlands, 2005–2009*

Patient no. Age, y Diarrhea type or source Year of sampling No. trimmed reads No. trimmed viral reads Virus species (no. reads; % nucleotide identity)
VS6600008 7 Sporadic 2008 7,851 271 Human picobirnavirus (221; NA)
VS6600009 25 Sporadic 2008 8,079 10 Bufavirus 1 (7; 67–94)
VS6600010 87 Sporadic 2008 3,237 1 NA
VS6600011 66 Sporadic 2008 3,866 6 NA
VS6600013 48 Sporadic 2008 2,849 19 NA
VS6600014 40 Sporadic 2008 8,079 143 Aichivirus (139; 98)
Human herpesvirus 4 (1; 91)
Anellovirus (3; 61–85)
VS6600015 84 Sporadic 2008 11,197 9 Anellovirus (6; 81–97)
VS6600016 37 Sporadic 2008 7,333 1 NA
VS6600017 62 Sporadic 2008 546 0 NA
VS6600018 <1 Sporadic 2008 3,936 4 NA
VS6600019 30 Sporadic 2008 9,590 18 NA
VS6600020 57 Sporadic 2009 10,389 37 Porcine picobirnavirus (6; 57–80)
VS6600021 52 Sporadic 2009 4,587 0 NA
VS6600022 27 OB2005111 2005 4,877 113 Fur seal–associated circular DNA virus (98; NA);
VS6600023 47 OB2005111 2005 7,423 117 Human picobirnavirus (91; 82–87)
VS6600024 47 OB2005115 2005 6,852 338 NA
VS6600025 6 OB2005115 2005 8,949 34 Human picobirnavirus (23; 75–84)
VS6600026 12 OB2006097 2006 6,879 52 Otarine picobirnavirus (42; 70–88)
VS6600027 13 OB2006097 2006 9,481 32 NA
VS6600028 52 OB2008169 2008 5,222 74 NA
VS6600029 32 OB2008169 2008 1,568 4 Human picobirnavirus (3; 86)
VS6600030 26 OB2008190 2008 7,377 57 NA
VS6600031 10 OB2008190 2008 4,541 14 NA
VS6600032 90 OB2008217 2008 4,185 13 Fur seal–associated circular DNA virus (4; NA)
VS6600033 97 OB2008217 2008 3,299 11 NA
VS6600034 89 OB2009024 2009 14,797 168 Human picobirnavirus (115;68%–77%)
VS6600035 91 OB2009024 2009 2,256 8 Human picobirnavirus (3; 70%)

*Classification of sequences was based on taxonomic origin of the best-hit sequence and was performed by using MEGAN version 4.40.4 ( with E cutoff values of 0.001 and 10–10 for BLASTn and BLASTx searches (, respectively (5,6). NA, not applicable; OB, outbreak

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