Clusters of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Detected by Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Nationwide Sample, Thailand, 2014–2017
Ditthawat Nonghanphithak, Angkana Chaiprasert, Saijai Smithtikarn, Phalin Kamolwat, Petchawan Pungrassami, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, Chaniya Leepiyasakulchai, Jody E. Phelan, David Blair, Taane G. Clark, and Kiatichai Faksri
Author affiliations: Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand (D. Nonghanphithak, W. Reechaipichitkul, K. Faksri); Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (A. Chaiprasert, C. Leepiyasakulchai); Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok (S. Smithtikarn, P. Kamolwat, P. Pungrassami); Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand (V. Chongsuvivatwong); Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S. Mahasirimongkol); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (J.E. Phelan, T.G. Clark); James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia (D. Blair)
Figure 2. Phylogenetic tree for the 590 drug-resistant Mycobaterium tuberculosis isolates from Thailand, 2014–2017. From inner to the outer circles: culture-based phenotypic drug-susceptibility test, whole-genome sequencing–based drug-resistance profile (DR TB, MDR TB, pre-XDR TB, and XDR TB), drug-resistance mutations, lineage, year of collection, regions, and provinces. Red triangles indicate the paired isolates from the same patients (n = 11). Scale bar indicates the genetic distance proportional to the total number of single nucleotide polymorphisms. M. canetti was used as an outgroup. DR TB, drug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR, multidrug resistant; TB, tuberculosis; XDR, extensively drug-resistant.
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