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Issue Cover for Volume 25, Number 4—April 2019

Volume 25, Number 4—April 2019

[PDF - 16.14 MB - 232 pages]

Perspective

Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela as a Regional Public Health Threat in the Americas [PDF - 1.57 MB - 8 pages]
A. E. Paniz-Mondolfi et al.

Venezuela’s tumbling economy and authoritarian rule have precipitated an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. Hyperinflation rates now exceed 45,000%, and Venezuela’s health system is in free fall. The country is experiencing a massive exodus of biomedical scientists and qualified healthcare professionals. Reemergence of arthropod-borne and vaccine-preventable diseases has sparked serious epidemics that also affect neighboring countries. In this article, we discuss the ongoing epidemics of measles and diphtheria in Venezuela and their disproportionate impact on indigenous populations. We also discuss the potential for reemergence of poliomyelitis and conclude that action to halt the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases within Venezuela is a matter of urgency for the country and the region. We further provide specific recommendations for addressing this crisis.

EID Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Tami A, Grillet ME, Márquez M, Hernández-Villena J, Escalona-Rodríguez MA, et al. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela as a Regional Public Health Threat in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):625-632. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181305
AMA Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Tami A, Grillet ME, et al. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela as a Regional Public Health Threat in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):625-632. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181305.
APA Paniz-Mondolfi, A. E., Tami, A., Grillet, M. E., Márquez, M., Hernández-Villena, J., Escalona-Rodríguez, M. A....Oletta, J. (2019). Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela as a Regional Public Health Threat in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 625-632. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181305.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Manifestations and Molecular Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus, Vietnam, 2015–2017 [PDF - 994 KB - 5 pages]
N. Trung et al.

Rickettsioses are endemic to Vietnam; however, only a limited number of clinical studies have been performed on these vectorborne bacteria. We conducted a prospective hospital-based study at 2 national referral hospitals in Hanoi to describe the clinical characteristics of scrub typhus and murine typhus in northern Vietnam and to assess the diagnostic applicability of quantitative real-time PCR assays to diagnose rickettsial diseases. We enrolled 302 patients with acute undifferentiated fever and clinically suspected rickettsiosis during March 2015–March 2017. We used a standardized case report form to collect clinical information and laboratory results at the time of admission and during treatment. We confirmed scrub typhus in 103 (34.1%) patients and murine typhus in 12 (3.3%) patients. These results highlight the need for increased emphasis on training for healthcare providers for earlier recognition, prevention, and treatment of rickettsial diseases in Vietnam.

EID Trung N, Hoi L, Dien V, Huong D, Hoa T, Lien V, et al. Clinical Manifestations and Molecular Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus, Vietnam, 2015–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):633-641. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180691
AMA Trung N, Hoi L, Dien V, et al. Clinical Manifestations and Molecular Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus, Vietnam, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):633-641. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180691.
APA Trung, N., Hoi, L., Dien, V., Huong, D., Hoa, T., Lien, V....Van Kinh, N. (2019). Clinical Manifestations and Molecular Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus, Vietnam, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 633-641. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180691.

Mucosal Leishmaniasis in Travelers with Leishmania braziliensis Complex Returning to Israel [PDF - 1.11 MB - 7 pages]
M. Solomon et al.

Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is a complication of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused mainly by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. This retrospective study investigated all cases of ML caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in a tertiary medical center in Israel, evaluating the risk factors, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of mucosal involvement in ML caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in travelers returning to Israel. During 1993–2015, a total of 145 New World CL cases were seen in travelers returning from Bolivia; among them, 17 (11.7%) developed ML. Nasopharyngeal symptoms developed 0–3 years (median 8 months) after exposure. The only significant risk factor for developing ML was the absence of previous systemic treatment. Among untreated patients, 41% developed ML, compared with only 3% of treated patients (p = 0.005). Systemic treatment for CL seems to be a protective factor against developing ML.

EID Solomon M, Sahar N, Pavlotzky F, Barzilai A, Jaffe CL, Nasereddin A, et al. Mucosal Leishmaniasis in Travelers with Leishmania braziliensis Complex Returning to Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):642-648. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180239
AMA Solomon M, Sahar N, Pavlotzky F, et al. Mucosal Leishmaniasis in Travelers with Leishmania braziliensis Complex Returning to Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):642-648. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180239.
APA Solomon, M., Sahar, N., Pavlotzky, F., Barzilai, A., Jaffe, C. L., Nasereddin, A....Schwartz, E. (2019). Mucosal Leishmaniasis in Travelers with Leishmania braziliensis Complex Returning to Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 642-648. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180239.

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the White Mountains, Arizona, USA, 2013–2018 [PDF - 1.11 MB - 5 pages]
N. Mafi et al.

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial infection transmitted by tick bites that occurs in several different parts of the world, including the western United States. We describe 6 cases of TBRF acquired in the White Mountains of Arizona, USA, and diagnosed during 2013–2018. All but 1 case-patient had recurrent fever, and some had marked laboratory abnormalities, including leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated aminotransaminases. One patient had uveitis. Diagnosis was delayed in 5 of the cases; all case-patients responded to therapy with doxycycline. Two patients had Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions. The White Mountains of Arizona have not been previously considered a region of high incidence for TBRF. These 6 cases likely represent a larger number of cases that might have been undiagnosed. Clinicians should be aware of TBRF in patients who reside, recreate, or travel to this area and especially for those who sleep overnight in cabins there.

EID Mafi N, Yaglom HD, Levy C, Taylor A, O’Grady C, Venkat H, et al. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the White Mountains, Arizona, USA, 2013–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):649-653. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181369
AMA Mafi N, Yaglom HD, Levy C, et al. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the White Mountains, Arizona, USA, 2013–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):649-653. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181369.
APA Mafi, N., Yaglom, H. D., Levy, C., Taylor, A., O’Grady, C., Venkat, H....Ampel, N. M. (2019). Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the White Mountains, Arizona, USA, 2013–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 649-653. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181369.

Lobomycosis in Soldiers, Colombia [PDF - 3.31 MB - 7 pages]
C. M. Arenas et al.

Lobomycosis is a disease that is endemic to the Amazon rainforest and is caused by the still uncultured fungus Lacazia loboi. This disease occurs in loggers, farmers, miners, fishermen, and persons living near coastal rivers of this region. We report 6 soldiers in Colombia in whom lobomycosis developed after military service in the Amazon area. The patients had nodular and keloid-like lesions on the face, neck, trunk, and limbs. The duration of illness ranged from 2 years to 15 years. The initial diagnosis was leishmaniasis on the basis of clinical manifestations and direct smear results, but biopsies confirmed the final diagnosis of lobomycosis. Treatment with surgical excision, itraconazole and clofazimine was satisfactory. However, the follow-up time was short. Healthcare professionals responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases need to be able to recognize the clinical signs of lobomycosis and differentiate them from those of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

EID Arenas CM, Rodriguez-Toro G, Ortiz-Florez A, Serrato I. Lobomycosis in Soldiers, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):654-660. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181403
AMA Arenas CM, Rodriguez-Toro G, Ortiz-Florez A, et al. Lobomycosis in Soldiers, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):654-660. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181403.
APA Arenas, C. M., Rodriguez-Toro, G., Ortiz-Florez, A., & Serrato, I. (2019). Lobomycosis in Soldiers, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 654-660. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181403.
Research

Cost-effectiveness of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening before Immigration to Low-Incidence Countries [PDF - 2.56 MB - 11 pages]
J. R. Campbell et al.

Prospective migrants to countries where the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is low (low-incidence countries) receive TB screening; however, screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) before immigration is rare. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of mandated and sponsored preimmigration LTBI screening for migrants to low-incidence countries. We used discrete event simulation to model preimmigration LTBI screening coupled with postarrival follow-up and treatment for those who test positive. Preimmigration interferon-gamma release assay screening and postarrival rifampin treatment was preferred in deterministic analysis. We calculated cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained for migrants from countries with different TB incidences. Our analysis provides evidence of the cost-effectiveness of preimmigration LTBI screening for migrants to low-incidence countries. Coupled with research on sustainability, acceptability, and program implementation, these results can inform policy decisions.

EID Campbell JR, Johnston JC, Cook VJ, Sadatsafavi M, Elwood R, Marra F. Cost-effectiveness of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening before Immigration to Low-Incidence Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):661-671. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171630
AMA Campbell JR, Johnston JC, Cook VJ, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening before Immigration to Low-Incidence Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):661-671. doi:10.3201/eid2504.171630.
APA Campbell, J. R., Johnston, J. C., Cook, V. J., Sadatsafavi, M., Elwood, R., & Marra, F. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening before Immigration to Low-Incidence Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 661-671. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171630.

Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014 [PDF - 3.51 MB - 9 pages]
E. Lizarazo et al.

Since chikungunya virus emerged in the Caribbean region in late 2013, ≈45 countries have experienced chikungunya outbreaks. We described and quantified the spatial and temporal events after the introduction and propagation of chikungunya into an immunologically naive population from the urban north-central region of Venezuela during 2014. The epidemic curve (n = 810 cases) unraveled within 5 months with a basic reproductive number of 3.7 and a radial spread traveled distance of 9.4 km at a mean velocity of 82.9 m/day. The highest disease diffusion speed occurred during the first 90 days, and space and space–time modeling suggest the epidemic followed a particular geographic pathway with spatiotemporal aggregation. The directionality and heterogeneity of transmission during the first introduction of chikungunya indicated existence of areas of diffusion and elevated risk for disease and highlight the importance of epidemic preparedness. This information will help in managing future threats of new or reemerging arboviruses.

EID Lizarazo E, Vincenti-Gonzalez M, Grillet ME, Bethencourt S, Diaz O, Ojeda N, et al. Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):672-680. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.172121
AMA Lizarazo E, Vincenti-Gonzalez M, Grillet ME, et al. Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):672-680. doi:10.3201/eid2504.172121.
APA Lizarazo, E., Vincenti-Gonzalez, M., Grillet, M. E., Bethencourt, S., Diaz, O., Ojeda, N....Tami, A. (2019). Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 672-680. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.172121.

Sand Fly–Associated Phlebovirus with Evidence of Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Kenya [PDF - 2.91 MB - 10 pages]
D. P. Tchouassi et al.

We describe a novel virus, designated Ntepes virus (NPV), isolated from sand flies in Kenya. NPV has the characteristic phlebovirus trisegmented genome architecture and is related to, but distinct from, Gabek Forest phlebovirus. Diverse cell cultures derived from wildlife, livestock, and humans were susceptible to NPV, with pronounced permissiveness in swine and rodent cells. NPV infection of newborn mice caused rapid and fatal illness. Permissiveness for NPV replication in sand fly cells, but not mosquito cells, suggests a vector-specific adaptation. Specific neutralizing antibodies were found in 13.9% (26/187) of human serum samples taken at the site of isolation of NPV as well as a disparate site in northeastern Kenya, suggesting a wide distribution. We identify a novel human-infecting arbovirus and highlight the importance of rural areas in tropical Africa for arbovirus surveillance as well as extending arbovirus surveillance to include hematophagous arthropods other than mosquitoes.

EID Tchouassi DP, Marklewitz M, Chepkorir E, Zirkel F, Agha SB, Tigoi CC, et al. Sand Fly–Associated Phlebovirus with Evidence of Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):681-690. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180750
AMA Tchouassi DP, Marklewitz M, Chepkorir E, et al. Sand Fly–Associated Phlebovirus with Evidence of Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):681-690. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180750.
APA Tchouassi, D. P., Marklewitz, M., Chepkorir, E., Zirkel, F., Agha, S. B., Tigoi, C. C....Sang, R. (2019). Sand Fly–Associated Phlebovirus with Evidence of Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 681-690. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180750.

Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico [PDF - 3.21 MB - 10 pages]
M. I. Nelson et al.

The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine in Mexico complicates control efforts in animals and presents a threat to humans, as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for vaccine development, we sequenced the genomes of 59 viruses and performed antigenic cartography on strains from 5 regions. We found that genetic and antigenic diversity were particularly high in southeast Mexico because of repeated introductions of viruses from humans and swine in other regions in Mexico. We identified novel reassortant H3N2 viruses with genome segments derived from 2 different viruses that were independently introduced from humans into swine: pandemic H1N1 viruses and seasonal H3N2 viruses. The Mexico swine viruses are antigenically distinct from US swine lineages. Protection against these viruses is unlikely to be afforded by US virus vaccines and would require development of new vaccines specifically targeting these diverse strains.

EID Nelson MI, Souza CK, Trovão NS, Diaz A, Mena I, Rovira A, et al. Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):691-700. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180779
AMA Nelson MI, Souza CK, Trovão NS, et al. Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):691-700. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180779.
APA Nelson, M. I., Souza, C. K., Trovão, N. S., Diaz, A., Mena, I., Rovira, A....Culhane, M. R. (2019). Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 691-700. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180779.

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children of Rural Areas of The Gambia, 2008–2015 [PDF - 723 KB - 9 pages]
A. Odutola et al.

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a substantial cause of childhood disease and death, but few studies have described its epidemiology in developing countries. Using a population-based surveillance system for pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis, we estimated S. aureus bacteremia incidence and the case-fatality ratio in children <5 years of age in 2 regions in the eastern part of The Gambia during 2008–2015. Among 33,060 children with suspected pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis, we performed blood culture for 27,851; of 1,130 patients with bacteremia, 198 (17.5%) were positive for S. aureus. S. aureus bacteremia incidence was 78 (95% CI 67–91) cases/100,000 person-years in children <5 years of age and 2,080 (95% CI 1,621–2,627) cases/100,000 person-years in neonates. Incidence did not change after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The case-fatality ratio was 14.1% (95% CI 9.6%–19.8%). Interventions are needed to reduce the S. aureus bacteremia burden in The Gambia, particularly among neonates.

EID Odutola A, Bottomley C, Zaman SA, Lindsay J, Shah M, Hossain I, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children of Rural Areas of The Gambia, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):701-709. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180935
AMA Odutola A, Bottomley C, Zaman SA, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children of Rural Areas of The Gambia, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):701-709. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180935.
APA Odutola, A., Bottomley, C., Zaman, S. A., Lindsay, J., Shah, M., Hossain, I....Mackenzie, G. A. (2019). Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children of Rural Areas of The Gambia, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 701-709. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180935.

Pneumonia-Specific Escherichia coli with Distinct Phylogenetic and Virulence Profiles, France, 2012–2014 [PDF - 666 KB - 9 pages]
B. La Combe et al.

In a prospective, nationwide study in France of Escherichia coli responsible for pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, we determined E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility, phylotype, O-type, and virulence factor gene content. We compared 260 isolates with those of 2 published collections containing commensal and bacteremia isolates. The preponderant phylogenetic group was B2 (59.6%), and the predominant sequence type complex (STc) was STc73. STc127 and STc141 were overrepresented and STc95 underrepresented in pneumonia isolates compared with bacteremia isolates. Pneumonia isolates carried higher proportions of virulence genes sfa/foc, papGIII, hlyC, cnf1, and iroN compared with bacteremia isolates. Virulence factor gene content and antimicrobial drug resistance were higher in pneumonia than in commensal isolates. Genomic and phylogenetic characteristics of E. coli pneumonia isolates from critically ill patients indicate that they belong to the extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli pathovar but have distinguishable lung-specific traits.

EID La Combe B, Clermont O, Messika J, Eveillard M, Kouatchet A, Lasocki S, et al. Pneumonia-Specific Escherichia coli with Distinct Phylogenetic and Virulence Profiles, France, 2012–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):710-718. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180944
AMA La Combe B, Clermont O, Messika J, et al. Pneumonia-Specific Escherichia coli with Distinct Phylogenetic and Virulence Profiles, France, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):710-718. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180944.
APA La Combe, B., Clermont, O., Messika, J., Eveillard, M., Kouatchet, A., Lasocki, S....Ricard, J. (2019). Pneumonia-Specific Escherichia coli with Distinct Phylogenetic and Virulence Profiles, France, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 710-718. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180944.

Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men [PDF - 2.20 MB - 9 pages]
T. Read et al.

During 2016–2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.

EID Read T, Murray GL, Danielewski JA, Fairley CK, Doyle M, Worthington K, et al. Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):719-727. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181258
AMA Read T, Murray GL, Danielewski JA, et al. Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):719-727. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181258.
APA Read, T., Murray, G. L., Danielewski, J. A., Fairley, C. K., Doyle, M., Worthington, K....Bradshaw, C. S. (2019). Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 719-727. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181258.

Differences in Neuropathogenesis of Encephalitic California Serogroup Viruses [PDF - 6.29 MB - 11 pages]
A. B. Evans et al.

The California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses comprises a group of mosquitoborne viruses, including La Crosse (LACV), snowshoe hare (SSHV), Tahyna (TAHV), Jamestown Canyon (JCV), and Inkoo (INKV) viruses, that cause neurologic disease in humans of differing ages with varying incidences. To determine how the pathogenesis of these viruses differs, we compared their ability to induce disease in mice and replicate and induce cell death in vitro. In mice, LACV, TAHV, and SSHV induced neurologic disease after intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation, and JCV induced disease only after intranasal inoculation. INKV rarely induced disease, which correlated with less viral antigen in the brain than the other viruses. In vitro, all viruses replicated to high titers; however, LACV, SSHV, and TAHV induced high cell death, whereas JCV and INKV did not. Results demonstrated that CSG viruses differ in neuropathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, which correlates with the differences in pathogenesis reported in humans.

EID Evans AB, Winkler CW, Peterson KE. Differences in Neuropathogenesis of Encephalitic California Serogroup Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):728-738. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181016
AMA Evans AB, Winkler CW, Peterson KE. Differences in Neuropathogenesis of Encephalitic California Serogroup Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):728-738. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181016.
APA Evans, A. B., Winkler, C. W., & Peterson, K. E. (2019). Differences in Neuropathogenesis of Encephalitic California Serogroup Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 728-738. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181016.

Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 with blaOXA-181, South Africa, 2014–2016 [PDF - 3.20 MB - 9 pages]
M. Lowe et al.

Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 307 is an emerging global antimicrobial drug–resistant clone. We used whole-genome sequencing and PCR to characterize K. pneumoniae ST307 with oxacillinase (OXA) 181 carbapenemase across several private hospitals in South Africa during 2014–2016. The South Africa ST307 belonged to a different clade (clade VI) with unique genomic characteristics when compared with global ST307 (clades I–V). Bayesian evolution analysis showed that clade VI emerged around March 2013 in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and then evolved during 2014 into 2 distinct lineages. K. pneumoniae ST307 clade VI with OXA-181 disseminated over a 15-month period within 42 hospitals in 23 cities across 6 northeastern provinces, affecting 350 patients. The rapid expansion of ST307 was most likely due to intrahospital, interhospital, intercity, and interprovince movements of patients. This study highlights the importance of molecular surveillance for tracking emerging antimicrobial clones.

EID Lowe M, Kock MM, Coetzee J, Hoosien E, Peirano G, Strydom K, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 with blaOXA-181, South Africa, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):739-747. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181482
AMA Lowe M, Kock MM, Coetzee J, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 with blaOXA-181, South Africa, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):739-747. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181482.
APA Lowe, M., Kock, M. M., Coetzee, J., Hoosien, E., Peirano, G., Strydom, K....Pitout, J. (2019). Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 with blaOXA-181, South Africa, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 739-747. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181482.

Co-infections in Persons with Early Lyme Disease, New York, USA [PDF - 422 KB - 5 pages]
G. P. Wormser et al.

In certain regions of New York state, USA, Ixodes scapularis ticks can potentially transmit 4 pathogens in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and the deer tick virus subtype of Powassan virus. In a prospective study, we systematically evaluated 52 adult patients with erythema migrans, the most common clinical manifestation of B. burgdorferi infection (Lyme disease), who had not received treatment for Lyme disease. We used serologic testing to evaluate these patients for evidence of co-infection with any of the 4 other tickborne pathogens. Evidence of co-infection was found for B. microti only; 4–6 patients were co-infected with Babesia microti. Nearly 90% of the patients evaluated had no evidence of co-infection. Our finding of B. microti co-infection documents the increasing clinical relevance of this emerging infection.

EID Wormser GP, McKenna D, Scavarda C, Cooper D, El Khoury MY, Nowakowski J, et al. Co-infections in Persons with Early Lyme Disease, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):748-752. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181509
AMA Wormser GP, McKenna D, Scavarda C, et al. Co-infections in Persons with Early Lyme Disease, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):748-752. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181509.
APA Wormser, G. P., McKenna, D., Scavarda, C., Cooper, D., El Khoury, M. Y., Nowakowski, J....Wong, S. J. (2019). Co-infections in Persons with Early Lyme Disease, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 748-752. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181509.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Dynamics and Antibody Responses among Clinically Diverse Patients, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 3.58 MB - 14 pages]
H. M. Al-Abdely et al.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) shedding and antibody responses are not fully understood, particularly in relation to underlying medical conditions, clinical manifestations, and mortality. We enrolled MERS-CoV–positive patients at a hospital in Saudi Arabia and periodically collected specimens from multiple sites for real-time reverse transcription PCR and serologic testing. We conducted interviews and chart abstractions to collect clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory information. We found that diabetes mellitus among survivors was associated with prolonged MERS-CoV RNA detection in the respiratory tract. Among case-patients who died, development of robust neutralizing serum antibody responses during the second and third week of illness was not sufficient for patient recovery or virus clearance. Fever and cough among mildly ill patients typically aligned with RNA detection in the upper respiratory tract; RNA levels peaked during the first week of illness. These findings should be considered in the development of infection control policies, vaccines, and antibody therapeutics.

EID Al-Abdely HM, Midgley CM, Alkhamis AM, Abedi GR, Lu X, Binder AM, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Dynamics and Antibody Responses among Clinically Diverse Patients, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):753-766. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181595
AMA Al-Abdely HM, Midgley CM, Alkhamis AM, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Dynamics and Antibody Responses among Clinically Diverse Patients, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):753-766. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181595.
APA Al-Abdely, H. M., Midgley, C. M., Alkhamis, A. M., Abedi, G. R., Lu, X., Binder, A. M....Gerber, S. I. (2019). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Dynamics and Antibody Responses among Clinically Diverse Patients, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 753-766. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181595.

Francisella tularensis Transmission by Solid Organ Transplantation, 2017 [PDF - 1.55 MB - 9 pages]
C. A. Nelson et al.

In July 2017, fever and sepsis developed in 3 recipients of solid organs (1 heart and 2 kidneys) from a common donor in the United States; 1 of the kidney recipients died. Tularemia was suspected only after blood cultures from the surviving kidney recipient grew Francisella species. The organ donor, a middle-aged man from the southwestern United States, had been hospitalized for acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome, pneumonia, and multiorgan failure. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (clade A2) was cultured from archived spleen tissue from the donor and blood from both kidney recipients. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing indicated that the isolated strains were indistinguishable. The heart recipient remained seronegative with negative blood cultures but had been receiving antimicrobial drugs for a medical device infection before transplant. Two lagomorph carcasses collected near the donor’s residence were positive by PCR for F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (clade A2). This investigation documents F. tularensis transmission by solid organ transplantation.

EID Nelson CA, Murua C, Jones JM, Mohler K, Zhang Y, Wiggins L, et al. Francisella tularensis Transmission by Solid Organ Transplantation, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):767-775. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181807
AMA Nelson CA, Murua C, Jones JM, et al. Francisella tularensis Transmission by Solid Organ Transplantation, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):767-775. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181807.
APA Nelson, C. A., Murua, C., Jones, J. M., Mohler, K., Zhang, Y., Wiggins, L....Basavaraju, S. V. (2019). Francisella tularensis Transmission by Solid Organ Transplantation, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 767-775. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181807.
Dispatches

Streptococcus agalactiae Sequence Type 283 in Farmed Fish, Brazil [PDF - 1.51 MB - 4 pages]
C. Leal et al.

In 2016 and 2017, we characterized outbreaks caused by Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III sequence type (ST) 283 in Nile tilapia farms in Brazil. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing clustered the fish isolates together with the zoonotic ST283 and other STs related to cases in humans, frogs, dogs, cattle, and dolphins.

EID Leal C, Queiroz GA, Pereira FL, Tavares GC, Figueiredo H. Streptococcus agalactiae Sequence Type 283 in Farmed Fish, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):776-779. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180543
AMA Leal C, Queiroz GA, Pereira FL, et al. Streptococcus agalactiae Sequence Type 283 in Farmed Fish, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):776-779. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180543.
APA Leal, C., Queiroz, G. A., Pereira, F. L., Tavares, G. C., & Figueiredo, H. (2019). Streptococcus agalactiae Sequence Type 283 in Farmed Fish, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 776-779. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180543.

Genomic Survey of Bordetella pertussis Diversity, United States, 2000–2013 [PDF - 2.96 MB - 4 pages]
M. R. Weigand et al.

We characterized 170 complete genome assemblies from clinical Bordetella pertussis isolates representing geographic and temporal diversity in the United States. These data capture genotypic shifts, including increased pertactin deficiency, occurring amid the current pertussis disease resurgence and provide a foundation for needed research to direct future public health control strategies.

EID Weigand MR, Williams MM, Peng Y, Kania D, Pawloski LC, Tondella ML. Genomic Survey of Bordetella pertussis Diversity, United States, 2000–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):780-783. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180812
AMA Weigand MR, Williams MM, Peng Y, et al. Genomic Survey of Bordetella pertussis Diversity, United States, 2000–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):780-783. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180812.
APA Weigand, M. R., Williams, M. M., Peng, Y., Kania, D., Pawloski, L. C., & Tondella, M. L. (2019). Genomic Survey of Bordetella pertussis Diversity, United States, 2000–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 780-783. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180812.

Early Genomic Detection of Cosmopolitan Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2, Angola, 2018 [PDF - 1.66 MB - 4 pages]
S. C. Hill et al.

We used portable genome sequencing to investigate reported dengue virus transmission in Angola. Our results show that autochthonous transmission of dengue serotype 2 (cosmopolitan genotype) occurred in January 2018.

EID Hill SC, Neto de Vasconcelos J, Granja B, Thézé J, Jandondo D, Neto Z, et al. Early Genomic Detection of Cosmopolitan Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2, Angola, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):784-787. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180958
AMA Hill SC, Neto de Vasconcelos J, Granja B, et al. Early Genomic Detection of Cosmopolitan Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2, Angola, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):784-787. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180958.
APA Hill, S. C., Neto de Vasconcelos, J., Granja, B., Thézé, J., Jandondo, D., Neto, Z....Afonso, J. (2019). Early Genomic Detection of Cosmopolitan Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2, Angola, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 784-787. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180958.

Enterovirus A71 Phenotypes Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam [PDF - 657 KB - 3 pages]
H. Van et al.

We investigated enterovirus A71–associated hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam and found that, after replacing subgenogroup C4 in 2013, B5 remained the leading cause of this disease. In contrast with previous observations, this switch did not result in an explosive outbreak, and B5 evolution was driven by negative selection.

EID Van H, Anh N, Hong N, Nhu L, Nguyet L, Thanh T, et al. Enterovirus A71 Phenotypes Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):788-791. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181367
AMA Van H, Anh N, Hong N, et al. Enterovirus A71 Phenotypes Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):788-791. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181367.
APA Van, H., Anh, N., Hong, N., Nhu, L., Nguyet, L., Thanh, T....Van Tan, L. (2019). Enterovirus A71 Phenotypes Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 788-791. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181367.

Distribution, Host-Seeking Phenology, and Host and Habitat Associations of Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, Staten Island, New York, USA [PDF - 2.47 MB - 5 pages]
D. M. Tufts et al.

Haemaphysalis longicornis, an invasive Ixodid tick, was recently reported in the eastern United States. The emergence of these ticks represents a potential threat for livestock, wildlife, and human health. We describe the distribution, host-seeking phenology, and host and habitat associations of these ticks on Staten Island, New York, a borough of New York City.

EID Tufts DM, VanAcker MC, Fernandez MP, DeNicola A, Egizi A, Diuk-Wasser MA. Distribution, Host-Seeking Phenology, and Host and Habitat Associations of Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, Staten Island, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):792-796. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181541
AMA Tufts DM, VanAcker MC, Fernandez MP, et al. Distribution, Host-Seeking Phenology, and Host and Habitat Associations of Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, Staten Island, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):792-796. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181541.
APA Tufts, D. M., VanAcker, M. C., Fernandez, M. P., DeNicola, A., Egizi, A., & Diuk-Wasser, M. A. (2019). Distribution, Host-Seeking Phenology, and Host and Habitat Associations of Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, Staten Island, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 792-796. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181541.

Aerosol Transmission of Aspergillus fumigatus in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in the Netherlands [PDF - 565 KB - 3 pages]
T. Engel et al.

We collected sputum samples and cough plates from 15 cystic fibrosis patients in the Netherlands who were colonized with Aspergillus fumigatus; we recovered A. fumigatus of the same genotype in cough aerosols and sputum samples from 2 patients. The belief that transmission of A. fumigatus from cystic fibrosis patients does not occur should be reconsidered.

EID Engel T, Erren E, Vanden Driessche K, Melchers W, Reijers MH, Merkus P, et al. Aerosol Transmission of Aspergillus fumigatus in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):797-799. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181110
AMA Engel T, Erren E, Vanden Driessche K, et al. Aerosol Transmission of Aspergillus fumigatus in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):797-799. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181110.
APA Engel, T., Erren, E., Vanden Driessche, K., Melchers, W., Reijers, M. H., Merkus, P....Verweij, P. E. (2019). Aerosol Transmission of Aspergillus fumigatus in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 797-799. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181110.

Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States [PDF - 1.81 MB - 4 pages]
P. A. Schaffer et al.

In December 2017, a dog that had pneumonic plague was brought to a veterinary teaching hospital in northern Colorado, USA. Several factors, including signalment, season, imaging, and laboratory findings, contributed to delayed diagnosis and resulted in potential exposure of >116 persons and 46 concurrently hospitalized animals to Yersinia pestis.

EID Schaffer PA, Brault SA, Hershkowitz C, Harris L, Dowers K, House J, et al. Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):800-803. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181195
AMA Schaffer PA, Brault SA, Hershkowitz C, et al. Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):800-803. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181195.
APA Schaffer, P. A., Brault, S. A., Hershkowitz, C., Harris, L., Dowers, K., House, J....Daniels, J. B. (2019). Pneumonic Plague in a Dog and Widespread Potential Human Exposure in a Veterinary Hospital, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 800-803. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181195.

Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA [PDF - 374 KB - 4 pages]
R. P. Smith et al.

We conducted a serosurvey of 230 persons in Maine, USA, who had been bitten by Ixodes scapularis or I. cookei ticks. We documented seropositivity for Borrelia burgdorferi (13.9%) and B. miyamotoi (2.6%), as well as a single equivocal result (0.4%) for Powassan encephalitis virus.

EID Smith RP, Elias SP, Cavanaugh CE, Lubelczyk CB, Lacombe EH, Brancato J, et al. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):804-807. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180202
AMA Smith RP, Elias SP, Cavanaugh CE, et al. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):804-807. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180202.
APA Smith, R. P., Elias, S. P., Cavanaugh, C. E., Lubelczyk, C. B., Lacombe, E. H., Brancato, J....Krause, P. J. (2019). Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 804-807. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180202.

Prolonged Shedding of Zika Virus RNA in Vaginal Secretions, Nicaragua [PDF - 328 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Reyes et al.

Zika virus, an arthropod-borne flavivirus pathogen in humans, is unusual because it can be sexually transmitted and can be shed for prolonged periods in semen. We report viral shedding in vaginal secretions for up to 6 months, indicating the potential for sexual and vertical transmission by infected women.

EID Reyes Y, Bowman NM, Becker-Dreps S, Centeno E, Collins MH, Liou G, et al. Prolonged Shedding of Zika Virus RNA in Vaginal Secretions, Nicaragua. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):808-810. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180977
AMA Reyes Y, Bowman NM, Becker-Dreps S, et al. Prolonged Shedding of Zika Virus RNA in Vaginal Secretions, Nicaragua. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):808-810. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180977.
APA Reyes, Y., Bowman, N. M., Becker-Dreps, S., Centeno, E., Collins, M. H., Liou, G....Bucardo, F. (2019). Prolonged Shedding of Zika Virus RNA in Vaginal Secretions, Nicaragua. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 808-810. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180977.

Self-Flagellation as Possible Route of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 Transmission [PDF - 574 KB - 3 pages]
A. R. Tang et al.

We report human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection associated with self-flagellation in 10 UK residents. These persons were heterosexual men from Pakistan, India, and Iraq. One person showed seroconversion in adulthood; 1 was co-infected with hepatitis C virus. No other risk factors for bloodborne virus acquisition were identified. Onward sexual transmission has occurred.

EID Tang AR, Taylor GP, Dhasmana D. Self-Flagellation as Possible Route of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):811-813. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180984
AMA Tang AR, Taylor GP, Dhasmana D. Self-Flagellation as Possible Route of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):811-813. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180984.
APA Tang, A. R., Taylor, G. P., & Dhasmana, D. (2019). Self-Flagellation as Possible Route of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 811-813. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180984.

Seroprevalence of Zika and Dengue Virus Antibodies among Migrant Workers, Taiwan, 2017 [PDF - 376 KB - 3 pages]
G. Perng et al.

A serosurvey of 600 workers newly arrived in Taiwan from 4 Southeast Asia countries showed that 18 (3%) were positive for Zika virus IgM; 6 (1%) fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for laboratory-confirmed recent Zika virus infection. The incidence of Zika virus infection in Southeast Asia might be underestimated.

EID Perng G, Ho T, Shih H, Lee C, Huang P, Chung C, et al. Seroprevalence of Zika and Dengue Virus Antibodies among Migrant Workers, Taiwan, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):814-816. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181449
AMA Perng G, Ho T, Shih H, et al. Seroprevalence of Zika and Dengue Virus Antibodies among Migrant Workers, Taiwan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):814-816. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181449.
APA Perng, G., Ho, T., Shih, H., Lee, C., Huang, P., Chung, C....Chien, Y. (2019). Seroprevalence of Zika and Dengue Virus Antibodies among Migrant Workers, Taiwan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 814-816. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181449.

Anopheles sundaicus Mosquitoes as Vector for Plasmodium knowlesi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India [PDF - 934 KB - 4 pages]
P. Vidhya et al.

Using PCR and sequencing, we found Plasmodium knowlesi in the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus mosquito collected from Katchal Island in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. We cannot rule out natural transmission of this parasite to humans through this mosquito species. An in-depth investigation is needed to prevent disease outbreaks.

EID Vidhya P, Sunish I, Maile A, Zahid A. Anopheles sundaicus Mosquitoes as Vector for Plasmodium knowlesi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):817-820. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181668
AMA Vidhya P, Sunish I, Maile A, et al. Anopheles sundaicus Mosquitoes as Vector for Plasmodium knowlesi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):817-820. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181668.
APA Vidhya, P., Sunish, I., Maile, A., & Zahid, A. (2019). Anopheles sundaicus Mosquitoes as Vector for Plasmodium knowlesi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 817-820. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181668.
Research Letters

Prior Vaccination and Effectiveness of Communication Strategies Used to Describe Infectious Diseases [PDF - 318 KB - 3 pages]
T. S. Valley et al.

We tested the effect of prior vaccination on response to communication strategies in a hypothetical news article about an influenza pandemic. Vaccinated were more likely than nonvaccinated participants to plan future vaccination, and future vaccination intent was greater with certain communication strategies. Using these findings to target communication may increase vaccination rates.

EID Valley TS, Scherer AM, Knaus M, Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Das E, Fagerlin A. Prior Vaccination and Effectiveness of Communication Strategies Used to Describe Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):821-823. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171408
AMA Valley TS, Scherer AM, Knaus M, et al. Prior Vaccination and Effectiveness of Communication Strategies Used to Describe Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):821-823. doi:10.3201/eid2504.171408.
APA Valley, T. S., Scherer, A. M., Knaus, M., Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., Das, E., & Fagerlin, A. (2019). Prior Vaccination and Effectiveness of Communication Strategies Used to Describe Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 821-823. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171408.

Peripheral Plasma and Semen Cytokine Response to Zika Virus in Humans [PDF - 463 KB - 3 pages]
J. Mansuy et al.

We assessed Zika virus RNA and select cytokine levels in semen, blood, and plasma samples from an infected patient in South America. Viral RNA was detected in semen >2 months after viremia clearance; cytokine profiles differed in semen and plasma. After viremia, Zika virus appears to become compartmentalized in the male reproductive tract.

EID Mansuy J, El Costa H, Gouilly J, Mengelle C, Pasquier C, Martin-Blondel G, et al. Peripheral Plasma and Semen Cytokine Response to Zika Virus in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):823-825. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171886
AMA Mansuy J, El Costa H, Gouilly J, et al. Peripheral Plasma and Semen Cytokine Response to Zika Virus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):823-825. doi:10.3201/eid2504.171886.
APA Mansuy, J., El Costa, H., Gouilly, J., Mengelle, C., Pasquier, C., Martin-Blondel, G....Jabrane-Ferrat, N. (2019). Peripheral Plasma and Semen Cytokine Response to Zika Virus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 823-825. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.171886.

Detection of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 1, Israel [PDF - 530 KB - 3 pages]
N. Golender and V. Y. Bumbarov

During September 2016–February 2017, we detected epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in ruminants in Israel. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses of segment 2 in 6 EHDVs isolated from field samples indicated a close relationship to the EHDV serotype 1 strain in Nigeria. Affected cattle had mostly mild or asymptomatic disease.

EID Golender N, Bumbarov VY. Detection of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 1, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):825-827. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180149
AMA Golender N, Bumbarov VY. Detection of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 1, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):825-827. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180149.
APA Golender, N., & Bumbarov, V. Y. (2019). Detection of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 1, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 825-827. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180149.

Ross River Virus Antibody Prevalence, Fiji Islands, 2013–2015 [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
M. Aubry et al.

A unique outbreak of Ross River virus (RRV) infection was reported in Fiji in 1979. In 2013, RRV seroprevalence among residents was 46.5% (362/778). Of the residents who were seronegative in 2013 and retested in 2015, 10.9% (21/192) had seroconverted to RRV, suggesting ongoing endemic circulation of RRV in Fiji.

EID Aubry M, Kama M, Vanhomwegen J, Teissier A, Mariteragi-Helle T, Hue S, et al. Ross River Virus Antibody Prevalence, Fiji Islands, 2013–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):827-830. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180694
AMA Aubry M, Kama M, Vanhomwegen J, et al. Ross River Virus Antibody Prevalence, Fiji Islands, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):827-830. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180694.
APA Aubry, M., Kama, M., Vanhomwegen, J., Teissier, A., Mariteragi-Helle, T., Hue, S....Cao-Lormeau, V. (2019). Ross River Virus Antibody Prevalence, Fiji Islands, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 827-830. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180694.

Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular Thrombosis [PDF - 677 KB - 3 pages]
M. Moniot et al.

We report a case of malignant otitis externa with jugular vein thrombosis caused by Aspergillus flavus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an unusual ink smudge pattern deep in a cervical abscess. The pattern was consistent with mycetoma and may be important for diagnosing these life-threatening infections.

EID Moniot M, Montava M, Ranque S, Scemama U, Cassagne C, Arthur V. Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular Thrombosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):830-832. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180710
AMA Moniot M, Montava M, Ranque S, et al. Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular Thrombosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):830-832. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180710.
APA Moniot, M., Montava, M., Ranque, S., Scemama, U., Cassagne, C., & Arthur, V. (2019). Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular Thrombosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 830-832. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180710.

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in White-Tailed Deer, Canada [PDF - 346 KB - 3 pages]
S. E. Allen et al.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease affects wild and domestic ruminants and has recently spread northward within the United States. In September 2017, we detected epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in wild white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in east-central Canada. Culicoides spp. midges of the subgenus Avaritia were the most common potential vectors identified on site.

EID Allen SE, Rothenburger JL, Jardine CM, Ambagala A, Hooper-McGrevy K, Colucci N, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in White-Tailed Deer, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):832-834. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180743
AMA Allen SE, Rothenburger JL, Jardine CM, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in White-Tailed Deer, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):832-834. doi:10.3201/eid2504.180743.
APA Allen, S. E., Rothenburger, J. L., Jardine, C. M., Ambagala, A., Hooper-McGrevy, K., Colucci, N....Nemeth, N. M. (2019). Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in White-Tailed Deer, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 832-834. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180743.

Effects of Political Instability in Venezuela on Malaria Resurgence at Ecuador–Peru Border, 2018 [PDF - 500 KB - 3 pages]
R. Jaramillo-Ochoa et al.

Mass migration from Venezuela has increased malaria resurgence risk across South America. During 2018, migrants from Venezuela constituted 96% of imported malaria cases along the Ecuador–Peru border. Plasmodium vivax predominated (96%). Autochthonous malaria cases emerged in areas previously malaria-free. Heightened malaria control and a response to this humanitarian crisis are imperative.

EID Jaramillo-Ochoa R, Sippy R, Farrell DF, Cueva-Aponte C, Beltrán-Ayala E, Gonzaga JL, et al. Effects of Political Instability in Venezuela on Malaria Resurgence at Ecuador–Peru Border, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):834-836. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181355
AMA Jaramillo-Ochoa R, Sippy R, Farrell DF, et al. Effects of Political Instability in Venezuela on Malaria Resurgence at Ecuador–Peru Border, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):834-836. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181355.
APA Jaramillo-Ochoa, R., Sippy, R., Farrell, D. F., Cueva-Aponte, C., Beltrán-Ayala, E., Gonzaga, J. L....Stewart-Ibarra, A. M. (2019). Effects of Political Instability in Venezuela on Malaria Resurgence at Ecuador–Peru Border, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 834-836. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181355.

Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico [PDF - 548 KB - 3 pages]
J. Delgado-de la Mora et al.

We report Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in ticks of the Amblyomma maculatum group collected from dogs in Sonora, Mexico. Molecular characterization of these bacteria was accomplished by DNA amplification and sequence analysis of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB.

EID Delgado-de la Mora J, Sánchez-Montes S, Licona-Enríquez JD, Delgado-de la Mora D, Paddock CD, Beati L, et al. Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):836-838. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181507
AMA Delgado-de la Mora J, Sánchez-Montes S, Licona-Enríquez JD, et al. Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):836-838. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181507.
APA Delgado-de la Mora, J., Sánchez-Montes, S., Licona-Enríquez, J. D., Delgado-de la Mora, D., Paddock, C. D., Beati, L....Álvarez-Hernández, G. (2019). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 836-838. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181507.

Reduced Susceptibility to Neuraminidase Inhibitors in Influenza B Isolate, Canada [PDF - 296 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed et al.

We identified an influenza B isolate harboring a Gly407Ser neuraminidase substitution in an immunocompromised patient in Canada before antiviral therapy. This mutation mediated reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, most likely by preventing interaction with the catalytic Arg374 residue. The potential emergence of such variants emphasizes the need for new antivirals.

EID Abed Y, Fage C, Lagüe P, Carbonneau J, Papenburg J, Vinh DC, et al. Reduced Susceptibility to Neuraminidase Inhibitors in Influenza B Isolate, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):838-840. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181554
AMA Abed Y, Fage C, Lagüe P, et al. Reduced Susceptibility to Neuraminidase Inhibitors in Influenza B Isolate, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):838-840. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181554.
APA Abed, Y., Fage, C., Lagüe, P., Carbonneau, J., Papenburg, J., Vinh, D. C....Boivin, G. (2019). Reduced Susceptibility to Neuraminidase Inhibitors in Influenza B Isolate, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 838-840. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181554.

Combination of Clindamycin and Azithromycin as Alternative Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis [PDF - 829 KB - 3 pages]
D. Shiojiri et al.

Current standard therapies for toxoplasmic encephalitis often cause severe adverse events. A 57-year-old HIV-positive man in Japan who had toxoplasmic encephalitis but was intolerant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and atovaquone was successfully treated with the combination of clindamycin and azithromycin. This drug combination can be an alternative treatment for this condition.

EID Shiojiri D, Kinai E, Teruya K, Kikuchi Y, Oka S. Combination of Clindamycin and Azithromycin as Alternative Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):841-843. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181689
AMA Shiojiri D, Kinai E, Teruya K, et al. Combination of Clindamycin and Azithromycin as Alternative Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):841-843. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181689.
APA Shiojiri, D., Kinai, E., Teruya, K., Kikuchi, Y., & Oka, S. (2019). Combination of Clindamycin and Azithromycin as Alternative Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 841-843. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181689.
Books and Media

The Task Force for Child Survival: Secrets of Successful Coalitions [PDF - 326 KB - 1 page]
J. M. Gould
EID Gould JM. The Task Force for Child Survival: Secrets of Successful Coalitions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):844. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181819
AMA Gould JM. The Task Force for Child Survival: Secrets of Successful Coalitions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):844. doi:10.3201/eid2504.181819.
APA Gould, J. M. (2019). The Task Force for Child Survival: Secrets of Successful Coalitions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 844. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.181819.
About the Cover

Finesse and Fire, Creativity and Combustion [PDF - 2.06 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Finesse and Fire, Creativity and Combustion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):845-846. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.ac2504
AMA Breedlove B. Finesse and Fire, Creativity and Combustion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):845-846. doi:10.3201/eid2504.ac2504.
APA Breedlove, B. (2019). Finesse and Fire, Creativity and Combustion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 845-846. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.ac2504.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Anaplasma phagocytophilum [PDF - 493 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):747. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.et2504
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):747. doi:10.3201/eid2504.et2504.
APA Henry, R. (2019). Etymologia: Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(4), 747. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.et2504.
Page created: March 18, 2019
Page updated: March 18, 2019
Page reviewed: March 18, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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