Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia
, Md Atique Ahmed1
, Jenarun Jelip, Hie Ung Ngian, Sahlawati Mustakim, Hani Mat Hussin, Mun Yik Fong, Rohela Mahmud, Frankie Anak Thomas Sitam, J. Rovie-Ryan Japning, Georges Snounou, Ananias A. Escalante, and Yee Ling Lau
Author affiliations: University of Malaya Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R. Yusof, M.A. Ahmed, M.Y. Fong, R. Mahmud, Y.L. Lau); Sabah State Health Department, Sabah, Malaysia (J. Jelip); Hospital Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysia (H.U. Ngian); Hospital Tengku Microbiology Laboratory, Ampuan Rahimah, Selangor, Malaysia (S. Mustakim); Kelantan State Health Department, Kelantan, Malaysia (H.M. Hussin); Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (F.A.T. Sitam, J. Rovie-Ryan); Sorbonne Universités, INSERM, Paris, France (G. Snounou); Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA (G. Snounou, A.A. Escalante)
Figure 2. Median-joining networks of Plasmodium knowlesi type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA haplotypes from Malaysia. The genealogical haplotype network shows the relationships among the 93 haplotypes present in the 209 sequences obtained from human and macaque samples from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Each distinct haplotype has been designated a number (H_n). Circle sizes represent the frequencies of the corresponding haplotype (the number is indicated for those that were observed >1×). Small red nodes are hypothetical median vectors created by the program to connect sampled haplotypes into a parsimonious network. Distances between nodes are arbitrary.
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