Association of Increased Receptor-Binding Avidity of Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses with Escape from Antibody-Based Immunity and Enhanced Zoonotic Potential
Joshua E. Sealy, Tahir Yaqub, Thomas P. Peacock1
, Pengxiang Chang, Burcu Ermetal, Anabel Clements, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Arslan Mehboob2
, Holly Shelton, Juliet E. Bryant, Rod S. Daniels, John W. McCauley, Munir Iqbal
, and Jean-Remy Royal Veterinary CollegeLondonUKSadeyen
Author affiliations: The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK (J.E. Sealy, T.P. Peacock, P. Chang, A. Clements, J.-R. Sadeyen, H. Shelton, M. Iqbal); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (T. Yaqub, A. Mehboob); The Francis Crick Institute, London (B. Ermetal, R.S. Daniels, J.W. McCauley); Fondation Mérieux, Lyon, France (J.E. Bryant)
Figure 7. Plaque phenotype of influenza A(H9N2) viruses in UDL-01/08 and SKP-827/16 A/T/V180 variants in MDCK cells. A) Plaque morphology of wild-type UDL-01/08 (containing A180) and SKP-827/16 (containing T180) viruses and variants containing A/T/V180 substitutions. B, C) 30 plaques were selected for each virus, and ImageJ software (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij) was used to measure plaque diameter. Comparisons were conducted between viruses of the same hemagglutinin backbone with different substitutions (A/T/V180). Error bars indicate SEM. ***p<0.001; ****p<0.0001.
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